Skip navigation.

NARIC
 HOME | SEARCH | CONTACT US | ABOUT US | SITEMAP
 
Join Rehabdata Connection!

Get NARIC's
monthly alerts!

reSearch: A collection of research reviews on rehabilitation topics from NARIC and other information resources.

Volume 6, Issue 2, March 2011: Workplace Accommodations & Individuals with Disabilities

In this edition of reSearch we explore the topic of workplace accommodations for individuals with disabilities. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 2009 American Community Survey presented in the Annual Disability Statistics Compendium 2010 by the RRTC on Disability Statistics and Demographics individuals with disabilities comprise 12 percent of the total U.S. population (301,472,074 ) (2010, p. 6). According to the 2009 data charts, only 35.4 percent of the total number of individuals with disabilities ages 18 to 64 years are employed compared to 74.3 percent of the non-disabled population within the same age range (2010, p. 21-22). In 2009, the gap between percentage of workers with and without disabilities was 39.1 percent. Statistical trends show that the number of individuals with disabilities rose by 0.22 percent from 2008 to 2009 and the employment gap rose 0.5 percent between the same years (2010, p. 17, 30). When reviewing the 2009 statistical data for individuals with and without disabilities between the ages of 16 to 64, 20.4 percent and 50.8 percent were employed full-time, respectively, with a significant gap of 30.3 percent (2010, p. 33).

While individuals with disabilities comprise approximately 12 percent of the total population they are still significantly underemployed compared to individuals without disabilities. The Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) protects the rights of individuals with disabilities in obtaining and maintaining employment—specifically:

Title I requires employers with 15 or more employees to provide qualified individuals with disabilities an equal opportunity to benefit from the full range of employment-related opportunities available to others. For example, it prohibits discrimination in recruitment, hiring, promotions, training, pay, social activities, and other privileges of employment. It restricts questions that can be asked about an applicant’s disability before a job offer is made, and it requires that employers make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of otherwise qualified individuals with disabilities, unless it results in undue hardship. Religious entities with 15 or more employees are covered under title I (A Guide to Disability Rights Laws, retrieved on February 25, 2011 from http://www.ada.gov/cguide.htm.

Requiring employers to make reasonable accommodations for individuals with known physical or mental limitations and/or otherwise qualified individuals with disabilities has allowed many individuals with disabilities to participate in the workplace. Recognizing need for a national policy to ensure that people with disabilities are fully integrated into the workforce, The Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) was created by Congress under the U.S. Department of Labor in 2001. ODEP provides national leadership by developing and influencing disability employment-related policies and practices leading to an increase in the employment of people with disabilities (About ODEP, retrieved on February 25, 2011 from http://www.dol.gov/odep/about/about.htm).
The Job Accommodation Network (JAN)—the leading source of free, expert, and confidential guidance on workplace accommodations and disability employment issues—is one of several services that ODEP funds. The services that JAN provides benefit private employers of all sizes, government agencies, employee representatives, service providers, and individuals with disabilities. JAN provides a wide variety of publications and resources including the Searchable Online Accommodation Resource (SOAR). JAN provides free, confidential technical assistance about job accommodations and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and is in an invaluable resource for individuals involved on every level of the employment process. ODEP also provides funding of the What Can You Do?, the Campaign for Disability Employment. The Campaign for Disability Employment is a collaborative effort between several disability and business organizations that seek to promote positive employment outcomes for people with disabilities by encouraging employers and others to recognize the value and talent they bring to the workplace.

This edition of reSearch provides a year “snapshot” of research on workplace accommodations and individuals with disability. This “snapshot” presents research related to workplace accommodations and individuals with disabilities such as traumatic brain injury and/or spinal cord injury, psychiatric disabilities, developmental and intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities, and visual impairment/blindness. The combined search terms for this edition of reSearch included: employment, job, reasonable, and workplace accommodations; disability; and employment. A listing of nearly 60 additional descriptor terms between the NARIC, ERIC, NCRTM, and the PubMed databases can be found at the end of this document. A search of the REHABDATA database resulted in 114 documents published between 1984 and 2010. The ERIC and NCRTM database searches resulted in 10 documents between 1999 and 2003 and 2 documents from 1992 and 2000; respectively. Finally, a search of the PubMed database resulted in 18 documents between 1991 and 2010. The complete citations are included in this research brief.

Citations:

Annual Disability Statistics Compendium: 2010. (2010). Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Disability Statistics and Demographics. Hunter College of CUNY: New York.

U.S. Department of Justice: Civil Rights Division—Disability Right Section. (2005). A Guide to Disability Rights Laws. Retrieved from www.ada.gov/cguide.htm.

U.S. Department of Labor: Office of Disability Employment Policy. (2002). About ODEP. Retrieved from www.dol.gov/odep/about/about.htm

NIDRR Funded Projects Related to Workplace Accommodations & Individuals with Disabilities

In addition to document searches, we searched our NIDRR Program Database to locate grantees/projects related to workplace supports and individuals with disabilities. The search resulted in seven currently funded NIDRR project, one project that has completed their research activities, and 23 older projects related to this topic. Project information and their publications are offered as additional resources for our patrons.

ADA Technical Assistance Centers
Toll Free: 800/949-4232
Region I – New England: adaptiveenvironments.org/neada/site/home
Region II – Northeast: www.northeastada.org
Region III – Mid-Atlantic: www.adainfo.org
Region IV – Southeast: www.sedbtac.org
Region V – Great Lakes: www.adagreatlakes.org
Region V maintains these other resources:
ada-audio.org
www.accessibilityonline.org
www.accessibletech.org
www.adacaselaw.org
Region VI – Southwest: www.dlrp.org
Region VII – Great Plains: www.adaproject.org
Region VIII – Rocky Mountain: www.adainformation.org
Region IX – Pacific: www.adapacific.org
Region X – Northwest: www.dbtacnorthwest.org
Assembly Advisor – An Integrated Prompting and Verification System that Increases Job Opportunities for People with Intellectual Disabilities
Project Number: H133S100031
Phone: 317/484-8400
Email: steve@createabilityinc.com
www.createabilityinc.com

Development of an Employment Consultation Staff Training Model for Workplace Inclusion
Project Number: H133G100176
Phone: 603/228-2084
Email: david.hagner@unh.edu
www.alliance.unh.edu

Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Workplace Accommodations
Project Number: H133E070026
Phone: 800/726-9119, 404/894-1414
Email: workrerc@coa.gatech.edu
www.workrerc.org

RRTC on Employment Outcomes for Individuals Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired
Project Number: H133B100022
Phone: 662/325-2001
www.blind.msstate.edu

Rehabilitation Research and Training Center for Vocational Rehabilitation Research
Project Number: H133B070001
Phone: 617/287-4317
Email: Susan.Foley@umb.edu
www.vr-rrtc.org

Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Enhancing the Functional and Employment Outcomes of Individuals Who Experience a Stroke
Project Number: H133B080031
Phone: 312/238-6197
Email: llovell@ric.org
www.rrtc-stroke.org

Workplace Accommodation Wizard: An Assessment and Accommodation Tool for Employers
Project Number: H133G070063
Phone: 800/726-9119, 404/894-1414
Email: workrerc@coa.gatech.edu
www.workrerc.org


The following project has completed its research activities:

Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Workplace Supports and Job Retention
Project Number: H133B040011
Phone: 804/828-1851 (V), 804/828-2494 (TTY)
Email: vbrooke@vcu.edu
www.worksupport.com

Documents from NARIC’s REHABDATA search listed are listed below:

2010

Baker, P.M.A., & Moon, N.W. (2010). Workplace accommodations for people with disabilities: Results of a policy Delphi study.
NARIC Accession Number: O17871
Project Numbers: H133E020720 and H133E070026
Available in full-text at
www.naric.com/research/rehab/download.cfm?ID=113544
ABSTRACT: This paper presents the results of policy research conducted by the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Workplace Accommodations (WorkRERC) to support efforts to develop policy initiatives for addressing the key issues critical to the implementation of successful workplace accommodations. A review of pertinent literature was conducted to identify workplace accommodation and employment topics associated with the employment of people with disabilities in order to lay the groundwork for developing a conceptual framework to guide policy change. The framework informed research undertaken utilizing the policy Delphi method, a multi-round, iterative polling instrument used to assess stakeholder perceptions on key issues and intervention options regarding workplace accommodations for employees with disabilities. Participants in the Delphi were asked to provide input on four categories of questions: (1) forecasts (items that examine the feasibility of broad social, economic, regulatory, and technological trends that may affect the future of workplace accommodations); (2) issues (perceived and identified barriers and opportunities related to workplace accommodations); (3) goals (the desirability of particular outcomes in addressing pertinent issues); and (4) policy options (examine the feasibility of initiatives and policy interventions to address important issues and achieve desirable goals). Respondents arrived at a set of 22 policy options that received the support of at least 75 percent of the panel.

Dowler, D.L., Hendricks, D.J., Solovieva, T.I., & Walls, R.T. (2010). Workplace personal assistance services for people with disabilities: Making productive employment possible. Journal of Rehabilitation, 76(4), 3-8.
NARIC Accession Number: J59672
Project Number: H133B031102
ABSTRACT: Study examined the perceived value of workplace accommodations from the perspective of the individual users of personal assistance services (PAS) who had contacted the Job Accommodation Network to discuss their own job accommodations. A follow-up telephone survey was conducted with 45 people with disabilities to assess their perspective on the relative impact of workplace PAS as an accommodation. When rating his or her own functional ability to work with no accommodations versus with workplace accommodations, the participants responded to a five-point Likert scale with 1 as “Not Limited at All” and 5 as “Substantially Limited.” Results indicate that for people with disabilities who have considered or implemented PAS accommodations, perception of work ability increases from being “Substantially Limited” with no accommodation to “Not Limited at All” with accommodations.

Dowler, D.L., Solovieva, T.I., & Walls, R.T. (2010). Employer benefits from making workplace accommodations.
NARIC Accession Number: J58753
Project Number: H133A060033
ABSTRACT: Study explored the types of workplace accommodations implemented for people with disabilities and their benefits. The participants were employers and human resource professionals who had not used the services of the Job Accommodation Network (JAN). A total of 194 non-JAN users responded an online survey to discuss disability-related accommodations for an employee or potential employee. The companies included large businesses (more than 499 employees) and small businesses (fewer than 500 employees). The respondents included 128 employers who reported having had an employee with a disability who requested an accommodation. Results indicated that the most frequently mentioned direct benefits from implementing workplace accommodations were: (1) retaining a qualified employee, (2) increasing worker productivity, and (3) eliminating the cost of training a new employee. The most frequently mentioned indirect benefits from accommodations were: (1) improved interactions with coworkers, (2) increased overall company morale, and (3) increased overall company productivity. The most frequently reported types of implemented accommodations were buying equipment and changing work schedules. Most of the respondents estimated the direct benefits of having made an accommodation at more than $1,000. The findings increase awareness of the benefits associated with making accommodations for people with disabilities in the workplace.

2009

(2009). Workplace accommodations: Low cost, high impact.
NARIC Accession Number: O17661
Available in full-text at www.jan.wvu.edu/media/LowCostHighImpact.doc
ABSTRACT: This fact sheet provides annually updated research findings from the Job Accommodation Network (JAN) regarding the costs and benefits of job accommodations for people with disabilities. Results of interviews conducted with 1,182 employers who contacted JAN between January 2004 and December 2006 suggest that the benefits of making accommodations for individuals in the workplace outweigh the costs. Specifically, these employers found that, on average, for every dollar they put into making an accommodation, they got back a little over $10 in benefits.

Aratan-Bergman, T., Blanck, P., Myhill, W.N., Samant, D., & Schreuer, N. (2009). Workplace accommodations: Occupational therapists as mediators in the interactive process. Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment, & Rehabilitation, 34(2), 149-160.
NARIC Accession Number: J58752
Project Numbers: H133A011803, H133A021801, H133A060033, and H133A060094
ABSTRACT: The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission encourages the use of an “interactive process” between the employee and employer to facilitate reasonable accommodations. This article asserts that an occupational therapist with special training in ergonomics may make a significant contribution to identifying and implementing effective workplace accommodations by mediating the interactive process between employer and employee. This unique role is illustrated by a case study examination of the occupational therapist’s professional expertise implementing a successful accommodation contrasted with an unsuccessful accommodation process that required litigation to resolve. Furthermore, the authors discuss the role of legal mediation principles in the occupational therapist’s practice, suggesting ways to improve accommodation outcomes and avoid litigation. Recommendations for future research and practice are presented.

Batiste, L.C., Loy, B., Moore, L.C., & Walls, R.T. (2009). Vocational rehabilitation and job accommodations for individuals with substance abuse disorders. Journal of Rehabilitation, 75(4), 35-44.
NARIC Accession Number: J57166
ABSTRACT: Study examined employment outcomes and workplace accommodation issues for individuals with substance abuse disorders. Data were obtained from 2 disability-related databases: the Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA) and the Job Accommodations Network (JAN). Analyses were conducted to examine the rates of successful employment outcomes (case closures) of clients with either alcoholism or drug addictions who were served by the state/federal vocational rehabilitation system in 1996, 2000, and 2004. The RSA database included 29,063 clients in 1996, 36,529 clients in 2000, and 35,473 clients in 2004. During this same period (1196 to 2005), the JAN handled cases for 475 employees, 806 employers, and 87 rehabilitation professionals, all involving alcoholism (715 cases), drug addiction (333 cases), or both (320 cases). Overall, the analyses compared and contrasted data for: (1) disability, (2) gender, (3) education, (4) referral source, (5) accommodation inquiry source, (6) types of services, (7) job accommodations, (8) case service costs, (9) rehabilitation closure status, (10) occupational outcomes, (11) industries, (12) Americans with Disabilities Act, (13) primary issues.

Dowler, D.L., Hendricks, D.J., Solovieva, T.I., & Walls, R.T. (2009). Cost of workplace accommodations for individuals with disabilities: With or without personal assistance services. Disability and Health Journal, 2(4), 196-205.
NARIC Accession Number: J57585
Project Number: H133B031102
ABSTRACT: Study compared the costs and benefits associated with use of personal assistance services (PAS) for individuals with disabilities to those of individuals with disabilities who did not use PAS. Data were obtained from follow-up telephone surveys and telephone interviews with employers who had previously contacted the Job Accommodation Network to discuss disability-related accommodations for an employee or potential employee from January 2004 through December 2006. The survey included 69 employers who had considered PAS. The findings highlight differences in costs associated with PAS cases compared with cases not involving PAS accommodations. The median “one-time cost” of accommodations (not $0) for non-PAS cases was $500. The median “one-time cost” of accommodations (not $0) for PAS cases was $1,850. When $0 cost of accommodations on PAS cases was factored in with “one-time cost” of accommodations for PAS cases, the median cost was $0. For non-PAS cases of accommodations, when $0 cost of accommodations was considered, the outcome was a median cost of $0. The median annual cost for PAS accommodations was $8,000, compared to $2,000 for non-PAS. The median dollar amount estimates of direct benefits were $1,600 for PAS accommodations, similar to $1,500 for non-PAS. The most frequently mentioned benefits from PAS accommodations were: (1) increased productivity, (2) increased diversity, (3) retention of a valued employee, (4) improved interactions with co-workers, (5) increased overall company morale, and (6) increased overall company productivity.

2008

(2008). Annotated bibliography of reasonable accommodation literature.
NARIC Accession Number: O17385
Project Number: H133A060085
Available in full-text at www.naric.com/research/rehab/download.cfm?ID=108644
ABSTRACT: Document provides an annotated bibliography of theoretical and empirical research on reasonable accommodations in the workplace from 1992 to the present. Categories include: administrative, legal, and policy issues; workplace attitudes toward reasonable accommodation and disability; disclosure of disability/accommodation requests in the workplace; reasonable accommodation practices; assistive technology, personal assistance services, telework, and other types of accommodations; impact of accommodations and disability on work; reasonable accommodation and specific types of disabilities (cognitive/intellectual, multiple sclerosis, musculoskeletal/mobility, psychiatric/mental health, sensory, and other/miscellaneous disabilities).

(2008). Before discussing ADA accommodations, employers should make ‘job modifications’. ADA Compliance Guide, 19(3), 6, 16.
NARIC Accession Number: J56501
ABSTRACT: Article provides suggestions for handling requests for workplace reasonable accommodations to comply with the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Reasonable accommodations include leave, job restructuring, modified work schedules, work-at-home provisions, and reassignment. Employers are advised to first try to help the employee without invoking disability or the ADA.

(2008). How much supporting documentation can agencies ask for when employees request accommodations? ADA Compliance Guide, 19(10), 5.
NARIC Accession Number: J56510
ABSTRACT: Article provides guidelines for seeking additional medical information related to a federal employee’s request for an accommodation. A federal agency may request information related to the past, present, and predicted future nature of the disability; the activities that the disability limits; the extent of the limitations resulting from the disability; why the person requires a reasonable accommodation; and how the accommodation will help the individual perform the essential functions of the job. It may not, however, request information that is not related, such as the individual’s complete medical record.

(2008). Quick facts: Reasonable accommodation in the workplace.
NARIC Accession Number: O17407
Project Number: H133A060084
Available in full-text at www.naric.com/research/rehab/download.cfm?ID=108667
ABSTRACT: Fact sheet provides a brief overview of the reasonable accommodation process. Types and examples of reasonable accommodations are presented.

Baker, P.M.A., Milchus, K., Sabata, D., Sanford, J.A., & Williams, M.D. (2008). A retrospective analysis of recommendations for workplace accommodations for persons with mobility and sensory limitations. Assistive Technology, 20(1), 28-35.
NARIC Accession Number: J56230
Project Number: H133E020720
ABSTRACT: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 266 individuals who received vocational rehabilitation assessments to determine the frequency and types of recommended workplace accommodations for people with motor and/sensory limitations. In general, most job accommodation recommendations targeted the individual workspace and were intended to assist in the completion of specific job tasks. Computer systems/components and special tools/furnishings were the most frequently reported types of recommendations, regardless of functional limitation. Adaptive strategies were least likely to be suggested.

Dong, S., Fabian, E.S., & MacDonald-Wilson, K.L. (2008). Best practices in developing reasonable accommodation in the workplace: Findings based on the research literature. The Rehabilitation Professional, 16(4), 221-232.
NARIC Accession Number: J55668
Project Number: H133A060085
ABSTRACT: Article reviews the literature on the provision of accommodations from the perspectives of the individual employee, the workplace, and the organization. Based on the findings, the authors suggest 10 specific strategies that rehabilitation professionals can use to address the barriers to the accommodation process. These “best practices” derived from the research literature can increase the probability that employees with disabilities will request and receive reasonable accommodations that enhance work performance and contribute to job retention.

Goldstein, A.M. (2008). Reasonable accommodations for people with psychiatric disabilities under the Americans with disabilities act (ADA). Employment Legal Briefings, 5.
NARIC Accession Number: O17743
Project Number: H133A060097
Available in full-text at www.naric.com/research/rehab/download.cfm?ID=111747
ABSTRACT: This brief examines how reasonable accommodations for people with psychiatric disabilities are handled under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Of the possible reasonable accommodations listed in the ADA, the 4 most utilized by employees with psychiatric disabilities are: (1) job restructuring, (2) part-time or modified work schedules, (3) reassignment, and (4) reasonable modifications of the work environment and/or policies. Courts cases related to these accommodations are reviewed to illustrate some of the issues involved.

Nichols, J.L. (2008). The influence of coworker justice perceptions on worksite accommodations and the return to work of persons with disabilities. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling (JARC), 39(3), 33-39.
NARIC Accession Number: J55636
ABSTRACT: This literature review examined the research on the effect of coworker perceptions of procedural justice in the workplace on the employment of people with disabilities. A review of rehabilitation counseling and organizational psychology literature identified employee attitudes toward justice in the workplace as potentially contributing to workplace accommodations. In the organizational literature, the term justice is equivalent to fairness. The findings suggest that the behaviors of workplace employees are influenced by their feelings of fairness. Studies indicated that disability characteristics, organizational factors, and coworker perceptions regarding the procedural fairness of accommodations may impact the successful implementation of accommodations for people with disabilities. Implications for rehabilitation counselors are discussed.

2007

Goldthwaite, J., Sabata, D., Sanford, J., & Zolna, J.S. (2007). Review of accommodation strategies in the workplace for persons with mobility and dexterity impairments: Application to criteria for universal design. Technology and Disability, 19(4), 189-198.
NARIC Accession Number: J53783
Project Number: H133E020720
ABSTRACT: Literature review summarizes the research regarding accommodation of people with mobility and dexterity impairments in the workplace for the purpose and the application of that knowledge to the design of universal workplaces. Online databases were used to search for articles focusing on individuals with either mobility or dexterity impairments and the workplace accommodation strategies implemented for them. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were examined to identify workplace characteristics, barriers to work, and types of intervention strategies. Several of the articles addressed a wide variety of employment settings with a broad range of physical requirements, while 3 articles focused on specific job types, 5 were based in competitive employment situations, and 2 focused on support environments. Four types of accommodations were identified to mitigate barriers to work: (1) assistive technology, (2) modifications to the physical work environment, (3) changes in job requirements, and (4) personal assistance. The literature review yielded 2 implications for universal design in the workplace: (1) it can help ensure that workplaces are accessible by employees, and (2) it can help facilitate the provision of individualized accommodations.

Milchus, K. (2007). Workplace accommodations for educators with disabilities. 30th Annual RESNA Conference Proceedings.
NARIC Accession Number: O17021
Project Number: H133E020720
ABSTRACT: Paper reports the results of a national survey of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) teachers with a disability regarding the accommodations they use and the process for receiving those accommodations. Findings show that teachers are primarily using environmental accommodations and equipment that may already be in place, such as a computer, overhead projector, or emergency call system. Teachers are less likely to be using specialized assistive technology as an accommodation, particularly for STEM-specific tasks. For nearly a third of the teachers, accommodations were solely self-determined, and the employer was involved in only half of the cases. It is concluded that teachers and their employers do not understand their rights and responsibilities under Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act and teachers may not be aware of all their accommodation options. This paper was presented at the 2007 Annual Conference of the Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society of North America and is available on CD-ROM.

2006

(2006). Fast facts on . . . Reasonable accommodations and the Americans with Disabilities Act.
NARIC Accession Number: O16639
Project Number: H133B980036
ABSTRACT: Fact sheet provides definitions of key terms and procedures related to job accommodations under the employment provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Topics include: who is covered under the ADA, who is a qualified applicant, description of essential job functions, examples of what reasonable accommodations might include and what they do not include, definition of an undue hardship, what an employee should do to request a reasonable accommodation, what an employer should do following such a request, and resources for technical assistance and financial assistance related to reasonable accommodations.

Blanck, P., Hendricks, D.J., Schartz, H., & Schartz, K. (2006). Workplace accommodations: Empirical study of current employees. Mississippi Law Journal, 75, 917-943.
NARIC Accession Number: J54466
Project Number: H133A021801
ABSTRACT: Article examines the benefits and costs associated with the provision of workplace accommodation. The analysis is based on data from interviews with employers who contacted the Job Accommodation Network concerning workplace accommodations for current employees. The authors describe workplace accommodation requirements before and after the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990. Next, they examined the extent to which employers’ accommodation decisions are linked to the ADA’s definition of disability for a qualified employee. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications the findings for future research.

Blanck, P., Hendricks, D.J., & Schartz, H.A. (2006). Workplace accommodations: Evidence based outcomes. Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation, 27(4), 345-354.
NARIC Accession Number: J51899
Project Numbers: H133A011803, H133A021801, H133A060033, H133A060094, and H133B980042
ABSTRACT: An inclusive cost/benefit analysis model was applied to preliminary data from interviews with employers who contacted the Job Accommodation Network (JAN). JAN provides individualized consultations about workplace accommodations, self-employment options, and technical assistance about disability-related legislation. Analysis of the accommodation inquiries included direct and indirect costs and benefits, and differentiated disability-related accommodations from typical employee costs. Results suggest that workplace accommodations are typically inexpensive, beneficial, and effective.

Endicott, S. (2006). Workplace accommodation outcomes. 29th Annual RESNA Conference Proceedings.
NARIC Accession Number: O16698
Project Number: H133E020720
ABSTRACT: A retrospective analysis of actual vocational rehabilitation case files was conducted and the needs and workers with disabilities were identified and accommodations to address those needs were recommended. A follow-up study was conducted with 26 subjects to better clarify the actual outcomes of the implementation of those recommendations. The objectives for the follow-up portion of the project were to identify what workplace accommodation recommendations had been implemented, how the accommodations had impacted employment success, and the current status of accommodation for former clients. Accommodations that had been recommended included physical/spatial environment (ramp, floor surface alterations, door modifications, bathroom modifications, arrange furniture, parking), assistive technology and work equipment (communication device, speakerphone, assistive technology, adapted tools, computer accommodations, magnification aid, workstation, ergonomic chair), and adaptive strategies (job site orientation, training, eliminate non-essential tasks, pacing, taking breaks, assistance, tool placement). Accommodations that were implemented included physical/spatial environment (ramp, floor surface alterations, door modifications, bathroom modifications, parking), assistive technology and work equipment (communication device, speakerphone, assistive technology, computer accommodations, magnification aid, workstation, ergonomic chair), and adaptive strategies (job site orientation, training, assistance, tool placement). Thirty-on percent of the subjects reported receiving no accommodations or assistive technology. This paper was presented at the 2006 annual conference of the Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA) and is available on CD-ROM.

Frank, J.J. (2006). A guide to using the accommodation request process of the Americans with Disabilities Act for people who are blind or who have low vision.
NARIC Accession Number: O16765
Project Number: H133B010101
Available in full-text at www.naric.com/research/rehab/download.cfm?ID=103473
ABSTRACT: Handbook provides guidance on requesting a job accommodation under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) for people who are blind or have severe visual impairments. It is based on the experiences of people who are blind or have low vision who responded to a survey about the ADA process. It includes their suggestions on how to successfully request reasonable accommodations.

Frank, J.J. (2006). A survey of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) accommodation request experience of persons who are blind or who have a severe visual impairment: Part II of a three part series on the impact of the ADA on the employment of people who are blind or who have a severe visual impairment.
NARIC Accession Number: O16764
Project Number: H133B010101
Available in full-text at www.naric.com/research/rehab/download.cfm?ID=103472
ABSTRACT: Report presents findings from a survey that evaluated the experience of requesting a job accommodation under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) from the perspective of people who are blind or have severe visual impairments. Respondents described the accommodations they requested over a 5-year period from 2000 to 2004, the entities to whom requests were made, the responses to requests and the effectiveness of anything received, and any redress process used and its effectiveness. Only 113 of the 151 respondents (75 percent) made employment-related requests during the study period, yielding a total use and effectiveness rate of 42.8 percent. Results indicated major areas of concern with the ADA accommodation process. Implications of the findings are discussed.

Milchus, K., & Sanford, J.A. (2006). Evidence-based practice in workplace accommodations. Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation, 27(4), 329-332.
NARIC Accession Number: J51897
Project Number: H133E020720
ABSTRACT: Article introduces this journal issue focused on the current state, as well as the future needs, of evidence-based practice in workplace accommodations. Evidence-based practice is an approach to health services that advocates for the integration of best research evidence with professional expertise and client values to make decisions about interventions that are effective for a specific individual. The subsequent articles represent 4 types of studies: descriptive and outcome studies, evidence-based methods for practice, employer and service provider information needs, and telework as an accommodation.

Milchus, K., & Sanford, J.A., (eds.). (2006). Special issue: Evidence-based practice in workplace accommodations. Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation, 27(4), 329-448.
NARIC Accession Number: R08837
Project Number: H133E020720
ABSTRACT: Journal issue focuses on the current state, as well as the future needs, of evidence-based practice in workplace accommodations. It includes articles representing 4 types of studies: descriptive and outcome studies, evidence-based methods for practice, employer and service provider information needs, and telework as an accommodation. The articles are available for document delivery under accession numbers J51897 through J51909.

Sabata, D., Williams, M., & Zolna, J. (2006). A survey of workplace accommodation needs of older workers and persons with disabilities. 29th Annual RESNA Conference Proceedings.
NARIC Accession Number: O16675
Project Number: H133E020720
ABSTRACT: A survey was conducted with people who self-identified as having functional difficulty with hearing, seeing, mobility, and/or mental functioning and who were currently employed or employed since acquiring a disability. Of the 510 participants, 320 were working age (18-54), 123 were pre-retirement age (55-64), and 49 were retirement age (over 64). The survey included demographic information and questions about work history, prevalence of functional limits of work tasks, types of accommodations used, and factors related to the acquisition of workplace accommodations. Analysis revealed that the 4 types of functional difficulties were similarly prevalent across the 3 age groups. Also the types of accommodations were used with similar frequencies across the age groups. A disappointing result was the number of people who received no accommodations for needed functional limitations. This paper was presented at the 2006 annual conference of the Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA) and is available on CD-ROM.

Stoddard, S. (2006). Personal assistance services as a workplace accommodation. Work: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation, 27(4), 363-369.
NARIC Accession Number: J51901
Project Number: H133B031102
ABSTRACT: Article presents findings from a survey of employers and workers with disabilities regarding the use of personal assistance services (PAS) as a workplace accommodation. Telephone interviews were conducted with 20 consumers of workplace PAS and 21 employers familiar with workplace accommodations. Questions concerned the use of PAS at work, processes and procedures used, and successes or barriers to implementing workplace PAS. Participants described a range of workplace PAS solutions currently being used. Employers stressed the importance of an organization culture of acceptance and diversity to make workplace PAS successful. Barriers to the expansion of workplace PAS included negative coworker or supervisor attitudes, cost to employers and workers, waiting time for accommodations, employee attitude and knowledge, and confusing terminology.

2005

Batiste, L.C., Blanck, P., Hendricks, D.J., Hirsh, A., & Schartz, H.A. (2005). Cost and effectiveness of accommodations in the workplace: Preliminary results of a nationwide study. Disability Studies Quarterly, 25(4).
NARIC Accession Number: J49960
ABSTRACT: Article provides an overview and history of the Job Accommodation Network (JAN), a discussion of JAN follow-up surveys, and preliminary findings from a nationwide survey of employers regarding the cost and benefits associated with making accommodations for workers with disabilities.

Dutton, G. (2005). A career strategy that works. CAREERS & the disABLED, 19(3), 36-37.
NARIC Accession Number: J49568
ABSTRACT: Article offers advice on providing employers with information on assistive technology and accommodations during the job interview process. It includes tips on resources, costs, and technology integration.

2004

Butterfield, T.M., & Ramseur, J.H. (2004). Research and case study findings in the area of workplace accommodations including provisions for assistive technology: A literature review. Technology & Disability, 16(3), 201-210.
NARIC Accession Number: J48442
Project Number: H133E020720
ABSTRACT: A literature review was conducted to determine what types of assistive technologies are being used in the workplace and for whom. Nineteen individual case studies and 11 multi-subject studies were reviewed. The following themes were identified: (1) types of accommodations recommended, (2) people receiving provisions for accommodation, and (3) methods of reporting accommodation in the literature.

Butterfield, T., Endicott, S., Moscoso, G., & Ramseur, J.H. (2004). Retrospective analysis of user needs for workplace accommodations. In D. Anson (Ed.), Proceedings of the RESNA 27th International Conference: Technology and Disability: Research, Design, Practice and Policy. RESNA Press: Arlington, VA.
NARIC Accession Number: O15762
Project Number: H133E020720
ABSTRACT: Using a retrospective analysis of actual vocational rehabilitation (VR) case files, authors identified the needs of workers with disabilities and the accommodations used to address those needs. Results showed that individuals who experienced work related limitations had difficulty reaching with their arms, handling and fingering, using a mobility device, or seeing. The most prevalent types of accommodations used by VR clients included provisions for computer technologies, new or alternative workstation design, communication devices, as well as the inclusion of adaptive strategies and environmental set up on the job. This paper was presented at the 2004 annual conference of RESNA, the Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America and is available on CD-ROM.

Somerville, N., & Wilson, D. (2004). Using job accommodation to keep you working.
NARIC Accession Number: O16473
Project Number: H133B980024
Available in full-text at www.naric.com/research/rehab/download.cfm?ID=102250
ABSTRACT: Fact sheet provides information on the types and examples of job accommodations for people with disabilities. A list of resources to help with the accommodation process is included.

Zolna, J.S. (2004). Factors for success of workplace accommodations. In D. Anson (Ed.), Proceedings of the RESNA 27th International Conference: Technology and Disability: Research, Design, Practice and Policy. RESNA Press: Arlington, VA.
NARIC Accession Number: O15833
ABSTRACT: Paper summarizes a literature review conducted to identify factors that contribute to the successful employment of people with disabilities. Articles and books included in the review fall into 2 major categories: (1) empirical research based on the experiences of workers with disabilities and (2) practice reports based on the experience of professionals in the field. The literature was evaluated for conclusions related to workplace accommodations and the effectiveness of workplace technology. This paper was presented at the 2004 annual conference of RESNA, the Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America and is available on CD-ROM.

2003

(2003). Workplace accommodation policy: 10 key issues.
NARIC Accession Number: O14638
Project Number: H133E020720
ABSTRACT: Details 10 issues focusing on issues of workplace accommodation and integration as they apply to people with disabilities: (1) equity in the costs of implementing workplace accommodations and integration, (2) civil rights, (3) collection of valid data concerning workplace accommodation and integration, (4) outcome performance measures, (5) transportation and telecommuting, (6) emergency preparedness and homeland security, (7) workplace accessibility and universal design, (8) environmental control, (9) technology, and (10) education.

Blanck, P., Davis, C.S., Heeringa, S.G., Sprince, N.L., Wallace, R.B., Whitten, P.S., & Zwerling, C. (2003). Workplace accommodations for people with disabilities: National health interview survey disability supplement, 1994-1995. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 45(5), 517-525.
NARIC Accession Number: J46216
ABSTRACT: Article presents data from the National Health Interview Survey Disability Supplement, 1994-1995, describing the nature of workplace accommodations and the factors associated with providing such accommodations. From the nationally representative sample of workers with disabilities, aged 18 to 69 years, 12 percent reported receiving workplace accommodations. Males and Southerners were less likely than others to receive accommodations. College graduate, older workers, full-time workers, and the self-employed were more likely to receive accommodations.

Kregel, J., & Unger, D. (2003). Employers’ knowledge and utilization of accommodations. Work, 21(1), 5-15.
NARIC Accession Number: J45799
Project Number: H133B980036
ABSTRACT: Human resource professionals and supervisors of people with disabilities were surveyed to determine the extent to which they were aware of and utilized workplace supports. Results indicated that although employers in the study were handling workplace disability remarkably well, their organization have limited awareness of workplace supports available to assist them. Participants relied primarily on their own organizational resources to identify and secure accommodations for workers with disabilities.

2002

Brooke, V., Kregel, J., Unger, D., & Wehman, P., (Eds.). (2002). Employers’ views of workplace supports: Virginia Commonwealth University charter business roundtable’s national study of employers’ experiences with workers with disabilities.
NARIC Accession Number: O15433
Project Number: H133B980036
ABSTRACT: Document reviews research that examines what employers in major corporations think about recruiting, hiring, and training workers with disabilities. The studies presented in the chapters analyze employers’ perceptions of people with disabilities in the workforce and identify characteristics that might affect employer perceptions; examine the extent to which employers were aware of and utilized workplace supports; and describe the types of workplace accommodations that have been provided to employees with disabilities. Three of the chapters are included separately in the NARIC collection under accession numbers J45799, J47250, and J47251.

Crean, T., Lyass, A., Massaro, J.M., MacDonald-Wilson, K.L., & Rogers, E.S. (2002). An investigation of reasonable workplace accommodations for people with psychiatric disabilities: Quantitative findings from a multi-site study. Community Mental Health Journal, 38(1), 35-50.
NARIC Accession Number: J46135
Project Numbers: H133B990023 and H133G30096
ABSTRACT: Article presents findings from a study examining the provision of reasonable workplace accommodations for individuals with psychiatric disabilities in supported employment programs. The characteristics of the employee, employers, and service provider organizations are discussed, as well as the types of accommodations made, their associated costs, and the types of functional deficits that led to the need for reasonable accommodation.

Deykes, R. (2002). Reasonable accommodations and access technologies in the workplace. Volta Voices, 9(1), 9-10, 18-19.
NARIC Accession Number: J44108
ABSTRACT: Article provides a brief overview of the employment provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and explores some of the new technologies that enhance the workplace environments for people who are deaf or hard of hearing. Discusses who is covered by the ADA, defines reasonable accommodations, and present examples of how technology provides reasonable accommodation in the workplace.

2001

Langton, A.J., & Ramseur, H. (2001). Enhancing employment outcomes through job accommodation and assistive technology resources and services. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 16(1), 27-37.
NARIC Accession Number: J43888
ABSTRACT: Article describes the use of assistive technology (AT) and worksite accommodations to help people with disabilities find and maintain employment. Basic steps to follow when considering the use of AT are outlined. Provides an example of the accommodation process (which should include a thorough job analysis), and focuses on the functional abilities of the employee. Low cost, off-the-shelf products are described which help increase the availability of needed resources, lower overall costs, and improve maintenance and repair options.

Girdhar, A., Kephart, A., Mital, A., & Young, A. (2001). Design guidelines for accommodating amputees in the workplace. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 11(2), 99-118.
NARIC Accession Number: J42925
ABSTRACT: Article on workplace accommodations for workers with disabilities due to amputations. The first part provides an overview of types and causes of amputations, and associated problems. The second part discusses the various measures an employer may take to address the needs of a worker with an amputation, including environmental changes (work site or workstation modifications), work aids, and accommodation of a prosthesis.

Johnson, K.L. (2001). Workplace accommodations for people living with multiple sclerosis.
NARIC Accession Number: O15068
Project Number: H133D10155
ABSTRACT: Brochure provides information that is helpful in planning and providing workplace accommodations for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Document describes what MS is, the primary course the disease can take, and symptoms or limitations associated with the disease. Recommendations for accommodations to address fatigue, mobility and motor weakness, vision changes, bowel and bladder control, and changes in sensation are provided. Includes a list of resources for additional information.

2000

(2000). Work-site accommodation ideas for individuals with epilepsy and seizure disorder.
NARIC Accession Number: O13591
ABSTRACT: Document providing ideas on work-site accommodations for people with epilepsy, along with general information for employers concerning epilepsy. Topics include: types of epilepsy, how to recognize them and what to do; photosensitivity; computer accommodations, general office accommodations, and others; questions to ask as part of the accommodation process; suppliers of flicker-free monitors and task lighting, and anti-glare computer glasses; first aid; questions to frequently asked questions from employers; and employment and general resources for people with epilepsy.

Berger, R.H., Feuerstein, M., Lincoln, A.E., Miller, V.I., Shaw, W.S., & Wood, P.M. (2000). Ergonomics and workplace accommodation to improve outcomes in a large workers’ compensation system. In J. Winters (Ed.), Proceedings of the RESNA 2000 Annual Conference: Technology for the New Millennium (pp. 587-591). Arlington: RESNA Press.
NARIC Accession Number: O13764
ABSTRACT: Study examining the feasibility of facilitating return to work by worker’s compensation claimants with work-related upper extremity disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) by providing instruction to nurse case managers on ergonomic principles, work site risk identification, and implementation of a systematic approach to workplace accommodation. Preliminary results indicate that nurses believed the instruction they received was helpful, and in the following year they implemented 2.7 accommodations per study case. This paper was presented at the 2000 annual conference of RESNA, the Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America.

Gates, L.B. (2000). Workplace accommodation as a social process. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 10(1), 85-98.
NARIC Accession Number: J39762
Project Number: H133G40057
Abstract: Study presenting results of an intervention designed to take into account the social nature of the workplace accommodation process. The intervention was pilot tested with 12 workers who were out on a short-term disability leave with a psychiatric diagnosis. The intervention involved (1) development of a disclosure plan; (2) formal psycho-educational training for the supervisor, co-workers, and the individual in the company with the authority to approve accommodations; and (3) ongoing follow-up support for the supervisor and the worker with the disability. Results of this pilot study were positive.

Sonneborn, D., Trupin, L., & Yelin, E. (2000). The prevalence and impact of accommodations on the employment of persons 51-61 years of age with musculoskeletal conditions. Arthritis Care and Research, 13(3), 168-176.
NARIC Accession Number: J39729
ABSTRACT: Study estimating the frequency with which individuals age 51 to 61 with musculoskeletal conditions received workplace accommodations from their employers, and examining whether the receipt of such accommodations is associated with higher rates of employment two years later. Estimates are derived from the Health and Retirement survey, a national probability sample of 8,781 respondents interviewed both in 1992 and 1994, of who 5,495 reported one or more musculoskeletal conditions. The provision of accommodations in 1992 was related to 1994 employment status using logistic regression. Results indicate that less than one in five respondents with a musculoskeletal condition reported receiving an accommodation at work in 1992. Of the accommodations reported, only getting someone to help do one’s job was associated with a higher rate of employment in 1994.

Young, C. (2000). The value of specifying what reasonable accommodations are expected from employers. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 94(1), 46-47.
NARIC Accession Number: J38342
ABSTRACT: Article on the importance for job applicants with disabilities of letting employers know in advance the nature and cost of accommodations. The author (director of the Oregon Commission for the Blind) argues that employers are likely to fear that “reasonable accommodation” is a blank check, and will therefore be more likely to hire a prospective employee with a disability if the employee can demonstrate what specific accommodations are necessary and state exactly how much such accommodations will cost.

1999

(1999). Federal agency actions: EEOC releases ADA policy guidance on reasonable accommodation. Employment in the Mainstream, 24(2), 14-21.
NARIC Accession Number: J36593
Abstract: Article reviews the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission’s “Enforcement Guidance, Reasonable Accommodation and Undue Hardship Under the Americans with Disabilities Act” released in March, 1999. The article provides extensive examples of “reasonable accommodations,” including recommendations on how employees may request reasonable accommodations, job applicant issues, benefits and privileges of employment, Job restructuring, leave, modified or part-time schedules, reassignment, and “Undue Hardship.”

(1999). People with disabilities in the federal government: An employment guide.
NARIC Accession Number: O13373
ABSTRACT: Guide providing guidance, information, and references to aid federal employers in their efforts to hire and advance employees with disabilities. Topics include: the legal framework of federal legislation and regulations; the role of specific agencies; definitions of terminology; hiring practices; reasonable accommodations; working with specific disabilities; integrating people with disabilities into the workplace; and promoting the employment of people with disabilities.

(1999). Workplace diversity: Accommodations & disability.
NARIC Accession Number: O13424
Project Number: H224A90047
ABSTRACT: Videotape on employment of people with disabilities, intended to inform employers about employment issues such as accommodation. The tape shows a panel discussion with five participants, including one worker with a disability and several employers with experience employing people with disabilities.

Brooke, V., Green, H., Hortum, L., Roberts, J., Rumrill, P., & Todd, J. (1999). Fast facts on ... Reasonable accommodations & the Americans with Disabilities Act.
NARIC Accession Number: O13326
Project Number: H133B980036
Available in full-text at www.naric.com/research/rehab/download.cfm?ID=91384
ABSTRACT: Fact sheet on reasonable accommodations under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Topics include: who is covered under the ADA; essential functions; examples of what reasonable accommodations might include and what they do not include; undue hardship; average cost of reasonable accommodations; what an employee should do to request a reasonable accommodation, and what an employer should do following such a request; and resources for technical assistance and financial assistance related to reasonable accommodation.

Geyer, P.D., & Schroedel, J.G. (1999). Conditions influencing the availability of accommodations for workers who are deaf or hard-of-hearing. Journal of Rehabilitation, 65(2), 42-50.
NARIC Accession Number: J36713
ABSTRACT: Study examines results from a sample of 232 employees who are deaf or hard-of-hearing, have varying levels of post secondary training, and the extent to which their employers provide accommodations (19 specific accommodations). Availability ranged from as low as 13% for computer-assisted note taking to a high of 80% for having hearing persons answering phones. Availability of accommodations was less than 50% for 12 of the 19 accommodations. Availability rates fluctuated in relation to attributes of both employees (need, education level, type of occupation) and employers (size and type of employer). Results are discussed and appear to be consistent with hypotheses derived from theory and previous research. Practical implications and future research needs are discussed.

Unger, D.D. (1999). Workplace supports: A view from employers who have hired supported employees. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 14(3).
NARIC Accession Number: J47250
Project Number: H133B980036
ABSTRACT: Article describes the types of workplace accommodations that have been provided to employees with disabilities. Data were collected from 53 businesses using the Employer Support Questionnaire and the Community and Workplace Support Form. Participants identified 31 different types of supports needs, categorized into the following 4 areas: employee training, career advancement, employee benefits, and workplace culture. The types of accommodations provided by the employers in this study go beyond the legal concept of reasonable accommodation, as required by the Americans with Disabilities Act. Not only have employers provided support for initial job site training, but they are also assisting employees with disabilities in pursuing career advancement opportunities, accessing in-house employee workshops and personal development seminars, and assisting in or arranging transportation. By addressing these needs with accommodations, employers demonstrate the willingness to retain valuable employees.

1998

Kittle, R., & Saab, T. (1998). JAN’s job accommodation process. Employment in the Mainstream, 23(1), 16-19.
NARIC Accession Number: J34672
ABSTRACT: Article providing a step-by-step description of process followed by the Job Accommodation Network (JAN) in finding job accommodations. Each step is illustrated with examples of situtations and solutions. Includes a flowchart.

Mueller, J.L. (1998). Assistive technology and universal design in the workplace. Assistive Technology, 10(1), 37-43.
NARIC Accession Number: J35304
ABSTRACT: Article about job accommodations involving universal design. Includes discussion of the use of universal design features in office furniture, workstations, and factory tools.

1997

(1997). Situations and solutions: Accommodations implemented by JAN users.
NARIC Accession Number: O14012
ABSTRACT: Paper briefly describing 36 situations reported by callers to the Job Accommodation Network (JAN), an information resource for workers and employers seeking ways to accommodate disabilities, together with the solutions that were implemented for each of these situations.

Dowler, D.L., Means, C.D., & Stewart, S.L. (1997). Job accommodations that work: A follow-up study of adults with attention deficit disorder. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 28(3), 13-17.
NARIC Accession Number: J34212
ABSTRACT: Describes the results of a survey designed to assess the outcome of job accommodations for persons with attention deficit disorder previously suggested by a Job Accommodation Network Consultant. The survey examined the appropriateness of the job accommodations, employment history, cost of the accommodations, time for implementation, effectiveness of accommodations, and satisfaction with the accommodations. Of 613 candidates identified, 61 (mostly employees) agreed to participate. The most common accommodations were assistive devices; consisting of changes in computers, telephones, etc.; and environmental changes, such as cubicles to reduce distraction. Most respondents reported satisfaction with the accommodations.

Mayhall, C.D., & Trach, J.S. (1997). Analysis of the types of natural supports utilized during job placement and development. Journal of Rehabilitation, 63(2), 43-48.
NARIC Accession Number: J33605
ABSTRACT: Analyzes placements of individuals with severe disabilities in integrated work settings and describes the support provided through accommodations designed to empower consumers, employers, and coworkers with responsibilities typically assigned to job coaches. Describes employer reports of support modification or adjustment as well as the design of new supports.

Mowry, R.L., & Scherich, D. (1997). Accommodations in the workplace for people who are hard of hearing: Perceptions of employees. JADARA, 31(1), 31-43.
NARIC Accession Number: J36211
ABSTRACT: Article presenting results of a survey of 201 persons who are deaf or hard of hearing regarding workplace accommodations. Participants were asked what types of workplace situations they found difficult, what sorts of accommodations were provided in their place of work, whether the accommodations worked well, and whether they were satisfied with the accommodations.

Rumpel, F. (1997). Mainstream’s top ten list of disabling conditions of workers that are being accommodated by employers. Employment in the Mainstream, 22(4), 14-18.
NARIC Accession Number: J34375
ABSTRACT: Article listing ten of the most common disabling conditions of employees that are being accommodated in the workplace, according to the experience of Mainstream, Inc., which has been helping employer’s make accommodations in the workplace for over twenty years. Provides examples of possible accommodations for each condition listed. Conditions include: back disorders; repetitive stress injuries, including carpal tunnel syndrome; mobility impairments; visual impairments; hearing impairments; psychiatric impairments; learning disabilities; brain injury; epilepsy; and HIV/AIDS.

1996

Batiste, L.C., & Walls, R.T. (1996). Job accommodations for fatigue in the workplace. Technology and Disability, 5(3/4).
NARIC Accession Number: J32747
Project Number: H133B30074
ABSTRACT: Discusses low-tech and high-tech job accommodations that allow workers whose disability interferes with essential job function to continue to perform that function. Provides information on fatigue from the Job Accommodation Network (JAN) database. Describes some different job accommodations specifically for fatigue and their success rates.

Dowler, D.L., & Walls, R.T. (1996). Accommodating specific job functions for people with hearing impairments. Journal of Rehabilitation, 62(3), 35-43.
NARIC Accession Number: J32285
Project Number: H133B30074
ABSTRACT: Study examining the accommodation of specific job functions for people who are deaf or have hearing impairments. A total of 392 job accommodation cases from the Job Accommodation Network were analyzed to determine the interrelationships between type of job, essential functions to be accommodated, career progression, and accommodation suggestions. Results show that the accommodation suggestions were more strongly linked to the essential function of the job than to the type of job or career progression. The most frequently identified job functions and accommodation suggestions were related to communication and safety. Few of the accommodations were made for the purpose of career advancement. The findings indicate that the most crucial aspect of making a worksite accommodation is to specifically identify the job function to be performed and then to recommend a product or solution that will enable the employee to perform that function.

Campbell, S.L. (1996). Career paths: Accommodation in the workplace. Disability Today, 5(3), 31-33.
NARIC Accession Number: J31616
ABSTRACT: Article discusses the accommodations, work options, and fellow employee attitudes that an employer hiring an employee with a disability may face. Guidance is given on common situations that happen with an employee that is visually impaired, blind, deaf, hearing impaired, or mobility impaired.

Dowler, D., Duckworth, K., Hendricks, D., & Hirsh, A. (1996). Accommodating workers with traumatic brain injury: Issues related to TBI AND ADA. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 7(3), 217-226.
NARIC Accession Number: J32579
ABSTRACT: Study exploring issues related to the Americans with Disabilities Act and job accommodation for persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Data for 196 TBI cases from the Job Accommodation Network were analyzed to address the following research topics: (1) the characteristics of the sample, (2) the types of industry in which they were employed, (3) the types of jobs in which they were employed or seeking employment, (4) the level of career progression, (5) the types of consequences of TBI that were reported and the frequency with which they were reported, (6) the types of job functions that required accommodation, (7) the types of accommodations that were discussed with callers, and (8) the ADA issues raised by callers. Results indicate that most workplace difficulties were the result of cognitive consequences of TBI. The most frequent issue raised by individuals with TBI, employers, and service providers was effective job performance. The most common types of accommodation discussed were modification of work activities and use of an assistive device. These and other findings are discussed.

Hammel, J., & Vander Loos, H.F.M. (1996). Engineering reasonable accommodation: The delivery and use of assistive technology in a vocational training program. Technology and Disability, 5(3/4).
NARIC Accession Number: J32748
ABSTRACT: the goal of the Vocational Training Facility (VTF) is to eliminate barriers of access to materials and devices involved in learning and training. As part of a project to test a new approach to vocational Training, the VTF developed a 3 workstation classroom for the training of students with physical disabilities. Each workstation was equipped with an array of commercial and prototype assistive technology (AT) devices. Focuses on the prescription, set up, and use of AT s an integral part of vocational training. Discusses the use of these workstations as a model for determining necessary reasonable accommodations for the workplace.

Kornblau, B. (1996). Facing up to arthritis: A hidden disability: ADA and workplace issues. ADVANCE for Occupational Therapy Practitioners (formerly Advance for Occupational Therapists), 12(43), 11.
NARIC Accession Number: J32621
ABSTRACT: Discusses employment issues and Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) protections for people with arthritis. The first part explores reasons why people with arthritis and other hidden disabilities find it hard to request reasonable accommodation. The second part discusses the importance of making a timely request and describes how occupational therapists can help in identifying appropriate accommodations and developing an advocacy plan.

Scherich, D.L. (1996). Job accommodations in the workplace for persons who are deaf or hard of hearing: Current practices and recommendations. Journal of Rehabilitation, 62(2), 27-35.
NARIC Accession Number: J31890
ABSTRACT: Study examining current practices in the provision of workplace accommodations for persons who are deaf or hard of hearing. Surveys were completed by 201 members of a self help organization and 51 employers of persons with hearing impairments. Results show that the situations identified as most difficult for persons with hearing impairments are group or multi-speaker situations. However, the majority of accommodations requested and in use are more appropriate for one on one communication situations. Furthermore, a limited number and type of accommodations were identified by both workers and employers. The findings suggest that employers and workers may lack knowledge about appropriate accommodation options and the benefits of providing these accommodations. The following recommendations are offered: (1) develop an accessible source of information on effective accommodations, (2) develop problem solving training to help workers identify appropriate accommodation options, and (3) help workers acquire skills in using a marketing approach to request accommodations.

Spechler, J.W. (1996). Reasonable accommodation: Profitable compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, 1996.
NARIC Accession Number: R07257
ABSTRACT: Handbook developed to demonstrate how businesses can achieve compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in hiring and retaining persons with disabilities. The book focuses on the use of reasonable accommodations to increase productivity and profitability. Chapter 1 discusses the role of the President’s Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities. Chapter 2 presents a 10 step process for implementing the ADA employment provisions. Chapters 3 through 28 contain case studies illustrating how different companies have successfully employed persons with a range of disabilities. The case studies provide many examples of training programs, policy statements, planning documents, job analysis formats, messages to employees, ADA implementation checklists, workplace assessments, ergonomic evaluations, and other resources. The case studies in Chapters 29 through 36 illustrate how rehabilitation organizations can assist businesses in employing people with disabilities. Chapter 37 addresses the issue of AIDS in the workplace. Chapter 38 describes various access technologies for employees with disabilities.

1995

Anderson, L. (1995). Job accommodations for persons with disabilities: Can they be reasonable? Technology & Disability, 4(3/4), 251-260.
NARIC Accession Number: J30387
Project Number: H133E30027
ABSTRACT: Presents examples of reasonable job accommodations for individuals with disabilities. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires employers to make reasonable accommodations for individuals with disabilities who are otherwise qualified for a given job. However, some confusion has arisen over the definition of “reasonable” and what constitutes an “undue hardship” for the employer. The first part of this article reviews the ADA definition of reasonable accommodation and the criteria for determining undue hardship. Data from the Job Accommodation Network are presented indicating that many accommodations can be implemented at a cost of less than $500. The second part presents six case studies describing various types of job accommodations for qualified individuals. Information about the costs of materials and equipment and the hours spent on implementation is included.

Burgio, F., Dwyer, J.C., & Sylvester, M.B. (1995). AccommoData: A disability accommodation resource, 1995.
NARIC Accession Number: R06915
ABSTRACT: User manual for AccommoData, a disability accommodation resource in computer software format designed to run under Microsoft Windows. The program was developed to provide user friendly information about the types and sources of reasonable accommodations in the workplace or in training situations. It is intended for use by consumers, employment specialists, employers, support services providers, human resources personnel, and others to help develop solutions to the problems that arise from the individual’s unique set of functional characteristics and abilities. This manual provides instructions for installing and using AccommoData. Selected printouts and reports on possible accommodations created using AccommoData are included.

Ingram, R. (1995). The ADA and reasonable accommodations for people with psychiatric disabilities, 1995.
NARIC Accession Number: R06968
ABSTRACT: Booklet designed to help people with psychiatric disabilities understand their rights and responsibilities under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). The information is organized into four main sections. The first section provides an overview of the ADA, its purpose, history, and comparison with other legislation. The second section explains the employment provisions of the ADA. The third section addresses the reasonable accommodations provisions and the issue of whether or not to disclose a psychiatric disability to an employer. The fourth section discusses possible accommodations for employees with psychiatric disabilities, how to assess the reasonableness of accommodations, and how to select appropriate accommodations. Information about psychiatric disabilities and tips for interacting with persons with psychiatric disabilities are provided in appendices. A list of resources is included.

Leslie, J.C. (1995). Worksite accommodation: Adaptation from a pragmatic perspective. Technology and Disability, 4(2), 131-135.
NARIC Accession Number: J30119
Project Number: H133E30027
ABSTRACT: Describes the research and development activities of the Wichita Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center (RERC), a consortium of the Cerebral Palsy Research Foundation of Kansas and the Wichita State University College of Engineering. The RERC conducts research in vocational applications of rehabilitation engineering technologies for educational settings, prevocational environments, and actual job settings. Six projects are underway: (1) development of employment related behaviors in students with disabilities, (2) development of information and training materials on worksite accommodation, (3) development of a user friendly computer based guide to utilization of rehabilitation technologies in the workplace, (4) development of tools for worksite analysis and accommodation design and evaluation, (5) development of a multimedia workstation for inspection and control tasks, and (6) demonstration of worksite modifications and accommodations using assistive technology.

McNeal, D., Somerville, N., & Wilson, D. (1995). Use of job accommodation by employees aging with a disability. RECREAbility - Recreation and Ability: Explore the Possibilities! In A. Langton (Ed.), Proceedings of the RESNA ’95 Annual Conference, June 9-14, 1995, Vancouver, BC, Canada (pp. 540-541). Arlington: RESNA Press.
NARIC Accession Number: O12716
Project Numbers: H133B30004 and H133B30029
ABSTRACT: Paper about a study investigating the accommodation needs of employees with disabilities over their work history. The study is intended to determine how the needs of employees with disabilities change with aging, and what experiences they have in getting job accommodations to meet those changing needs. The paper outlines the objectives of the study, sample selection techniques, data collection methods, and progress made in the study as of the time the paper was written (including work by a consumer advisory committee). This paper was presented at the 1995 annual conference of the Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA).

1994

Dowler, D.L., Hendricks, D.J., & Judy, B.T. (1994). Real-life issues in job accommodation: Employers’ and employees’ perspectives. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 4(3), 174-182.
NARIC Accession Number: J28307
Project Number: H133B30074
ABSTRACT: Examination of calls to the Job Accommodation Network (JAN) searching for the most frequent issues addressed related to job accommodation and the affects of career progression or job type on issue type. JAN is a service of the President’s Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities which provides free information to businesses, counselors, employers, and employees on job accommodation. JAN files are kept on all calls received and contain demographic and other relevant information. Two thousand ninety-three files were examined and issues and other information categorized and recorded. Results showed that the six most frequent issue inquiries were: understanding the ADA, accommodation impact, employer-employee conflict, cost, government agency problems, and assorted other problems (ex. guide dogs, self-care, or lateral position changes). Most calls were related to accommodations that would facilitate the retention of a current employee and involved employees in managerial positions or technical occupations. It is anticipated that issues will shift from ADA basic terminology to accommodation strategies.

Dowler, D.L., & Hirsh, A. (1994). Accommodations in the workplace for people who are deaf or hard of hearing. Technology and Disability, 3(1), 15-25.
NARIC Accession Number: J27257
Project Number: H133B30074
ABSTRACT: The Job Accommodation Network (JAN), a service of the Presidents Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities, provides information about work place accommodation. Between April 1992 and May 1993, JAN received over 1,000 calls related to accommodation for people with hearing impairments. Data from 392 calls were analyzed to determine industry and type of job, type of accommodation, functions requiring accommodation, and products recommended for accommodation. One-third of inquiries related to work station modification and 38 percent related to the purchase or modification of equipment. Essential functions focused on communication by telephone or with coworkers and on safety issues. Types of products recommended to callers included signals, phone and amplification systems, communication methods, computers, and environmental solutions. Specific assistive devices and accommodations that were recommended and adopted by employers include the use of the Text Telephone and Telecommunication Device for the Deaf, telephone amplification, tape transcription, amplified stethoscope, room amplification, paging systems, computer-assisted note taking, captioning, safety issues, hearing protection, and visual and tactile cues.

Dvorchik, K.M., MacGillis, P.W., & Shaw, L.R. (1994). Alcoholism and the Americans with Disabilities Act: Obligations and accommodations. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 38(2), 108-123.
NARIC Accession Number: J29361
ABSTRACT: Discusses the provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) that pertain to the employment of individuals with alcoholism and compares these requirements with those concerning current drug users. Differences with regard to qualifying as a person with a disability, testing for the use of drugs versus alcohol, taking disciplinary action, and providing reasonable accommodation are highlighted. The current level of compliance with the ADA requirements regarding alcoholism is reviewed. Barriers to the provision of accommodations to individuals with alcoholism are discussed and various forms of accommodation that are commonly used with employees with alcoholism are described. These types of accommodations included employee assistance programs, the opportunity for inpatient alcoholism treatment, use of leave and flexible work hours, and job restructuring.

Flippo, K.F., & Green, H. (1994). Resources for Americans with Disabilities Act implementation: Business accommodation response teams. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 4(3), 183-191.
NARIC Accession Number: J28308
ABSTRACT: Describes a prescriptive job accommodation assistance program for small or medium businesses that do not have access to accommodation resources. The Business Accommodation Response Team (BART): provides basic information on ADA regulations, identifies approaches to non-burdensome job accommodations, and responds to both employer and employee needs developing a range of solutions within 72 hours of the initial call. Three case studies are then described which illustrate the extent and variety of services that BART provides.

Gottcent, J., Roessler, R.T. (1994). The work experience survey: a reasonable accommodation/career development strategy. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 25(3), 16-21.
NARIC Accession Number: J29015
Project Number: H133B30059
ABSTRACT: Article presents findings from a pilot test of the Work Experience Survey (WES), a structured interview designed to involve employees in identifying their own reasonable accommodation needs. The study involved five currently employed individuals with multiple sclerosis who completed the WES. The WES consisted of six sections: (1) background, disability, and employment information; (2) accessibility barriers; (3) problems with essential job functions; (4) career mastery issues; (5) job satisfaction concerns; and (6) top priority barriers and feasible solutions. Respondents chose their three highest top priority barriers, suggested reasonable accommodations for the barriers, and indicated who could help and how. Subjects reported symptoms such as chronic fatigue, muscle weakness, balance/coordination problems, cognitive disturbances, and blurred vision which interfered with their capacity to perform essential job tasks. The paper discusses the five cases and their recommended solutions. The five cases illustrate the ways that the WES can help the process of reasonable accommodation and career development.

Hennessey, L. (1994). The Americans with Disabilities Act Title I: What do we know about reasonable accommodations for individuals with psychiatric disabilities? Work, 4(4), 245-252.
NARIC Accession Number: J28958
ABSTRACT: Discusses the reasonable accommodations that may be required by law for the functional limitations commonly experienced by persons with psychiatric disabilities. The first section provides an overview of the Title I employment provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act, requiring employers to make reasonable accommodations for qualified persons with disabilities. The second section describes the types of functional limitations commonly experienced by individuals with mental illness: decreased concentration, inability to maintain stamina, difficulty managing time, difficulty with problem solving, problems with interpersonal communication, and side effects of medications. The third section offers examples of reasonable accommodations the employer may be required to provide for each type of functional limitation.

Roberts, G., & Zimbrich, K. (1994). Putting job accommodation to work. Work, 4(1), 35-45.
NARIC Accession Number: J27527
Project Number: H133B30067
ABSTRACT: Presents the Job Accommodation System (JAS), a user friendly tool developed to assist rehabilitation practitioners, employers, and employees in identifying and implementing reasonable accommodations in the workplace. The JAS offers guidelines for the four main steps of the process: collecting information, problem solving, selecting accommodations, and implementing accommodations. Information collection includes identifying the demands of the job (job analysis) and the skills and abilities of the employee (employee profile). Problem solving has two components: using the information collected to identify barriers to performance of job tasks, and brainstorming to suggest solutions to the task barriers; then, suitable accommodations are selected by considering factors such as costs, support services needed, and impact on coworkers. The employee, employer, and rehabilitation practitioner should have a clear understanding about who will be responsible for the actions necessary to implement the accommodations. Finally, follow up is essential to ensure that the accommodation is satisfactory.

The National Rehabilitation Hospital’s ADA Compliance Program. (1994). Principles of reasonable accommodation.
NARIC Accession Number: O10957
ABSTRACT: A copy of the National Rehabilitation Hospital’s Principles of Reasonable Accommodation that was developed in part to satisfy requirements for the hospital’s ADA Compliance Program. The report reviews ADA’s definition of “reasonable accommodation”, lists specific examples of accommodations, describes examples of reasonable accommodations, addresses the issue of undue hardship, identifies steps to be taken by an employer in determining the appropriate reasonable accommodation, suggests fundamental principles for accommodating disabled individuals in the workplace, and discusses the application of assistive technology/workstation ergonomics.

1993

Blumenthal, S.M. (1993). Critical issues in the reasonable accommodation of injured workers. National Association of Rehabilitation Professionals in the Private Sector, 8(3), 121-125.
NARIC Accession Number: J25959
ABSTRACT: The article discusses the expanded role of the vocational rehabilitation counselor (VRC), as a result of the ADA, in providing services to industrially injured workers when attempting to return injured workers to their employers. When negotiation and implementing employer-based return to work services, the VRC must be fully knowledgeable in the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission’s (EEOC) definition of reasonable accommodation. It is critical that the VRC be able to analyze job tasks essential to job performance and document technical accommodations needed for the return to work of an injured worker. The article lists examples of the legal obligations an employer has regarding reasonable accommodation, examples of reasonable accommodations according to the EEOC’s Technical Assistance Manual and benefits experienced by employers when they implement reasonable accommodations.

Fabian, E.S., Ripke, B., & Waterworth, A. (1993). Reasonable accommodations for workers with serious mental illness: Type, frequency, and associated outcomes. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 17(2), 163-172.
NARIC Accession Number: J26293
ABSTRACT: Study examining the frequency, type and associated outcomes of reasonable accommodations made for supported employees with serious mental illness. Subjects were 30 clients of a community based supported employment program whom had held a total of 47 jobs during the 32-month study period. Data were collected from weekly progress notes and follow-up interviews with individual job coach files. A total of 231 accommodations at the worksite were identified, for an average of 5.1 accommodations per job. The most frequently identified accommodations were orientation and training of supervisors to provide necessary assistance (38.1 percent), modifications of the non-physical work environment (16.4 percent), and modification of work hours and schedules (15.6 percent). The least frequent accommodation was orientation and training of coworkers (3.0 percent). Job retention was significantly associated with number of job accommodations; five or more accommodations on a job resulted in twice the job tenure as did fewer than five accommodations.

Hammel, J., & Symons, J. (1993). Evaluating reasonable accommodation in the workplace: A team approach. Work, 3(4), 12-20.
NARIC Accession Number: J26249
ABSTRACT: Article discusses the protocols and evaluation techniques used by a team composed of an occupational therapist and a rehabilitation engineer and how to provide worksite accessibility to people with disabilities. The team collects information from an activity analysis form filled out by the client over a normal week, to determine client’s skill level and ability and what assistive devices or restructuring of duties is necessary for the client to function more independently. It is recommended to try out various assistive devices, or enhanced software or ergonomic equipment above and below clients expected function level and for a period of time. Evaluators should provide a report containing a concise summary of all technologies and accommodations evaluated by the client and his/her ability to use each one. An ADA regulations, tips and resources guide should be provided with the report for all interested parties.

Mello, J.A. (1993). Employing and accommodating workers with disabilities: Mandates and guidelines for labor relations. Labor Law Journal, 162-170.
NARIC Accession Number: J32322
ABSTRACT: Overview of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) employment provisions and the implications for employers. The first part provides background information about the problem of employment discrimination against persons with disabilities, the scope of the ADA as compared with the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and definitions of key terms including “disability,” “discrimination,” and “reasonable accommodation.” The second part discusses the implications for public and private employers, the role of managers in implementing the ADA in the workplace, and employment practices such as writing job descriptions, interviewing and pre-employment testing, involving the employee in devising accommodations, and promoting positive attitudes among co-workers.

Michaels, C.A., & Risucci, D.A. (1993). Employer and counselor perceptions of workplace accommodations for persons with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 24(1), 38-46.
NARIC Accession Number: J24820
ABSTRACT: Describes a study investigating attitudes and the amount of cooperation of employers and vocational rehabilitation counselors in considering accommodations in the workplace for persons with traumatic brain injuries. The study involved surveys of 85 employers and 64 rehabilitation counselors. The employers were surveyed by mail and the counselors were surveyed in person. The survey form consisted of fourteen scenarios each featuring an employee with TBI and demonstrating a functional limitation within one of the seven areas of limitation as outlined in the Rehabilitation Services Administration’s definition of severe disability. Then three reasonable accommodations are described for each functional limitation in each scenario. The participants were asked to read each scenario and suggested accommodations and rank them in order from most to least feasible. They were then asked to read the list of obstacles next to each accommodation and if the accommodation presented an obstacle, the obstacle was to be checked. Finally the participants ranked the three scenarios presenting the greatest barriers to employment and the least barriers to employment. The results of the survey revealed that the three most offered reasons for unreasonable accommodations were: (1) not being fair to co-workers, (2) too time consuming, and (3) too costly. Counselors’ viewed accommodations as most problematic and employers viewed limitations in job performance as most problematic. Overall, counselors’ views and employers’ views differed very little.

1992

(1992). Disabilities in the workplace: A guide to federal and state laws.
NARIC Accession Number: R06182
ABSTRACT: Presents information on federal and state laws advocating for employees with disabilities. The nine sections are as follows: (1) overview of federal laws coverage (overview of federal employment laws and their scope, and public accommodations and architectural barriers); (2) persons protected (who has disabilities and who is qualified); (3) employer practices (reasonable accommodation, employee selection and hiring, affirmative action, and prohibition against discrimination in terms, conditions, and privileges of employment); (4) federal procedures and remedies (administrative and judicial procedures); (5) state laws prohibiting disability discrimination; (6) primary source materials (federal statutes, executive orders, regulations); (7) primary source materials (state law in Alabama and Montana); (8) primary source materials (state law in Nebraska and Wyoming); and (9) current matter (current matter applying to specific questions).

Hablutzel, N., & McMahon, B.T., (Eds.). (1992). The Americans with Disabilities Act: Access and accommodations-guidelines for human resources, rehabilitation, and legal professionals. Orlando: PMD Press.
NARIC Accession Number: R06681
ABSTRACT: Collection of articles written by human resource, rehabilitation, and legal professionals, outlining the ADA and describing in detail what the ADA offers persons with disabilities in terms of rights to access and accommodation. The book is organized into three sections and eight appendices. Section I, Relevant Background, has chapters discussing development of the ADA, disabling attitudes, and legal overviews. Section II, Employment Issues and Answers, has chapters discussing issues in recruitment and selection, employment testing, human resources support for current employees, reinforcing the need for progressive human resources practices, changing nature and role of job analysis, employer-based disability management strategies and work return transition programs, alcohol and drug testing, AIDs/HIV disease and employment, and considerations for the rehabilitation consultant. Section III, Improving Public Access and Revenue Enhancement, has chapters discussing barrier removal by private entities, environmental barriers, access to public transportation and access to telecommunications, tax incentives, issues in customer satisfaction, and resources for job accommodation. The eight appendices include choosing appropriate language, President Bush’s remarks at the signing, complete text of ADA, complete text of ADA regulations, compendium of legal resources, compendium of technical assistance resources, Technical Assistance Manual on the Employment Provisions (Title I) of the ADA, and EEAC ADA Implementation Planning Checklist.

Handricks, D.J., & Jacobs, A.E. (1992). Job accommodations for adults with learning disabilities: Brilliantly disguised opportunities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 15(4), 274-286.
NARIC Accession Number: J23601
ABSTRACT: Employees with specific learning disabilities (SLD) require job accommodations in order to achieve employment success, but many employers have misconceptions and attitudinal barriers. The article looks at the job accommodation needs of adult employees with SLD, analyzing cases from the Job Accommodations Network (JAN), an international accommodation information service of the President’s Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities. The article focuses on proven accommodations that are suitable for many employment environments to assist qualified employees with SLD. After defining and explaining job accommodations, the article provides information from a study of several cases handled by JAN. JAN data since 1984 indicate that 4.3 percent of their cases have involved accommodations for workers with SLD. According to the data, large numbers of individuals with SLD are either working or seeking work in service-type industries. The study indicates that many individuals with SLD have trouble finding employment, and many continue to have problems once they obtain employment. The most frequent and limiting problem tends to be reading difficulty. The case studies suggest that it is possible to successfully accommodate the needs of adults with SLD across a wide range of employment situations, and such accommodations often benefit co-workers. A list of resources is included.

Mueller, J. (1992). The workplace workbook 2.0: An illustrated guide to workplace accommodation and technology.
NARIC Accession Number: R06656
ABSTRACT: Illustrated handbook on workplace accommodations for persons with specific functional characteristics resulting from different types of disabilities. The handbook provides definitions of 17 specific functional characteristics of disabilities as well as detailed illustrations, specifications, and instructions for accommodating each characteristic. The information is organized into four main sections: 1) design of a universal workplace incorporating features useful to workers with and without disabilities; 2) assistive modifications to the workplace for workers with specific functional characteristics; 3) assistive modifications to computers, information displays, communication devices, controls, and other electronic technologies for workers with specific functional characteristics; and 4) directory of information and technical resources for help in planning and implementing workplace accommodations.

1990

Rumpel, F., Ed. (1990). Planning reasonable accommodations: A cost-effective approach in a legal framework, 1990.
NARIC Accession Number: R06657
ABSTRACT: Booklet developed to assist employers in providing reasonable accommodations for applicants and employees with disabilities as required by the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). The information is organized into four topic areas: (1) categories and examples of the types of reasonable accommodations required by the law; (2) factors to consider when determining whether or not an accommodation would impose an undue hardship; (3) the duty to make reasonable accommodations only to the known limitations of an applicant or employee, and the requirement that need for reasonable accommodation must not be used as a deciding factor in the hiring process; and (4) the role of job task analysis and consultation with the applicant/employee in planning reasonable accommodations. Sample job analysis forms and instructions are included. The booklet also provides a directory of resources for worksite modifications and manufacturers of assistive devices.

1989

Judy, B.T. (1989). Job accommodation in the workplace.
NARIC Accession Number: R04658
ABSTRACT: Discusses job accommodation in the workplace — what it is and what it entails, its legislative basis, and the role of the Job Accommodation Network. Reviews relevant provisions of Sections 503 and 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the 1977 regulations, and discusses accessibility as the crux of reasonable accommodation. Discusses the reasons why many employers are uninformed about job accommodation and its potential benefits, and reviews the major incentives for employers to do job accommodation. Also describes the Job Accommodation Network, an information network and consulting service that provides free advice and technical assistance to counselors, other rehabilitation professionals, and employers seeking to hire or retain disabled employees. Includes tables listing common types of job accommodations, reasons for making job accommodations, and exemplary standards that must be met for accommodation expenses to be deductible.

1987

McCray, P.M. (1987). The job accommodation handbook.
NARIC Accession Number: R04715
ABSTRACT: A handbook about job accommodation (the re-engineering of a job or the tools required to perform it in order to better accommodate workers’ (including handicapped workers) needs. The handbook is intended for an audience of vocational rehabilitation specialists, and those in allied positions; it intends to acquaint them with the job accommodation process and to help them be successful in arranging job accommodations for disabled persons. The volume is divided into 9 chapters: employer attitudes toward job accommodation, reasonable accommodation, job analysis of functional worker characteristics, job restructuring, accessibility and job accommodation, accommodation tools and techniques, job accommodation success stories, and a conclusion. Appended is a list of references, the text of a recent Supreme Court decision addressing job accommodation, and a list of definitions of worker functions.

1984

(1984). Accommodations at the workplace: It’s good business. Rehab Brief, 7(5).
NARIC Accession Number: O12057
Available in full-text at www.naric.com/research/rehab/download.cfm?ID=15818
ABSTRACT: Highlights findings from the first national survey of private sector employees contracting with the Federal Government to explore accommodation practices for employees with disabilities. Data were obtained through a company questionnaire, telephone interviews, a worker questionnaire, and on site case studies. This report summarizes findings concerning the extent, types, and costs of accommodations provided and the factors that influenced companies’ decisions about hiring and accommodating workers with disabilities. Implications for rehabilitation practitioners are discussed.

Documents from the Education Resource Information Center (ERIC) search at www.eric.ed.gov are listed below:

2003

Allaire, S.H., LaValley, M.P., & Li, W. (2003). Work barriers experienced and job accommodations used by persons with arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 46(3), 147-56.
ERIC #: EJ671007
ABSTRACT: Many people with arthritis become work disabled, but little is known about the types of work barriers they experience and their use of job accommodations. This article describes work barriers and use of accommodations and examines factors associated with accommodation use in persons with arthritis at risk for work disability.

2000

Banks, B., Howard, M., & Rogan, P. (2000). Workplace supports in practice: As little as possible, as much as necessary. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 15(1), 2-11.
ERIC #: EJ604923
ABSTRACT: This study investigated the ways in which workplace supports are conceptualized and implemented by four organizations that provide supported employment services. Findings indicate that each agency was driven by strong leadership and a cohesive vision and values with a history of innovation and change. Natural workplace supports were promoted in each organization. Interview protocols are appended.

1998

Inge, K.J., Powell, D., Strobel, W., Todd, J., & Wehman, P. (1998). Supported employment and assistive technology for persons with spinal cord injury: Three illustrations of successful work supports. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 10(2), 141-52.
ERIC #: EJ567069
ABSTRACT: Case studies of three adults with spinal cord injury illustrate the role of assistive technology, employment specialists, and types of workplace supports needed to enable them to secure and maintain employment. Employment specialists are able to analyze accommodation needs and help employers understand them.

1997

Rumrill, P.D., et al. (1997). Profiles of on-the-job accommodations needed by professional employees who are blind. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 91(1), 66-76.
ERIC #: EJ539211
ABSTRACT: Five case studies of professional employees who are blind describe their needs for employment accommodations in the following areas: worksite accessibility, performance of essential job functions, job mastery and satisfaction, and career development. The article also describes the Work Experience Survey, an instrument useful in helping the employee to identify on-the-job barriers and their solutions.

1996

Butterworth, J., et al. (1996). Natural supports in the workplace: Defining an agenda for research and practice. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 21(3), 103-13.
ERIC #: EJ540954
ABSTRACT: This paper defines natural workplace supports for individuals with severe disabilities and proposes a working model for future research and practice. Emphasis is placed on natural supports as an outcome of successful employment rather than a distinct model for support and as a contributing factor to the quality of life.

1995

Lee, B.A. (1995). Reasonable accommodation under the Americans with disabilities act. Implementing the Americans with disabilities act series. State University of New York, Ithaca: School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University.
ERIC #: ED415610
ERIC Full-Text: www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=ED415610

ABSTRACT: This brief paper summarizes requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 related to reasonable accommodation. The following topics are addressed: what is meant by reasonable accommodation and some examples; some ways of determining essential job functions and possible accommodations (such as job descriptions, permissible and impermissible questions, use of medical information, and use of tests); reasonable accommodation and safety considerations; and reasonable accommodation and worker misconduct (especially when the misconduct is related to the individual’s disability). A listing of three resources is provided.

1994

Mullins, J.A., Jr., & Rumrill, P.D., Jr. (1994). Making reasonable accommodations. American School Board Journal, 181(12), 34-36.
ERIC #: EJ492926
ABSTRACT: The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 builds on earlier federal laws and clarifies the obligations school boards have toward employees with disabilities. One useful tool for figuring out what reasonable accommodations are necessary is the Work Experience Survey. A resource list identifies additional sources of information on employer obligations under the ADA.

1993

Anderson, G.B., & Mowry, R.L. (1993). Deaf adults tell their stories: Perspectives on barriers to job advancement and on-the-job accommodations. Volta Review, 95(4), 367-77.
ERIC #: EJ481389
ABSTRACT: Interviews with 22 employed and 18 unemployed individuals with deafness indicated that both environmental and personal characteristics influenced their success or failure in advancing on the job and in getting job accommodations. Implications for employers, employees who are deaf, and service providers are discussed.

Butterworth, J., Hart, D., Roberts, G., & Zimbrich, K. (1993). Job accommodation system: Project TIE (technology in employment). Children’s Hospital, Boston: Institute for Community Inclusion.
ERIC #: ED411617
ERIC Full-Text: www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=ED411617

ABSTRACT: This manual presents a comprehensive evaluation tool that can be used by employees with disabilities, by rehabilitation practitioners, and by consultants to develop job accommodations in a variety of employment settings. The Job Accommodation System is designed to help in identifying, selecting, and implementing job accommodations and consists of six sections: (1) the coversheet, which includes employee’s and employer’s description of the barrier to job performance, job accommodation history, confidential medical history, and comments section; (2) a job analysis, which includes employer’s, employee’s, and/or rehabilitation practitioner’s description of job duties, responsibilities, work environment, and task barriers; (3) the profiles, which are designed in an interview format, that assist in the development of a comprehensive picture of the employee in five functional skill areas; (4) the diagrams, which include graphic representations of typical office furniture and equipment; (5) a summary work sheet, which presents a summary and comparison of information collected in the profiles and job analysis sections, and initial ideas for job accommodation ideas; and (6) recommendations and alternatives, which present recommended accommodations, including equipment and service sources, cost and funding sources, and person responsible for implementing each accommodation. Examples of worksheets are provided and reproducible blank forms are included.

1991

Linthicum, E., et al. (1991). Employment and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 14(1), 1-13.
ERIC #: EJ431292
ABSTRACT: This article provides an overview of how the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) affects employment of individuals with disabilities. Examples from congressional reports are included in discussions of each of the five Titles; definition of disability; and specific provisions concerning essential job functions, reasonable accommodations, undue hardship, and discrimination after hiring.

Documents from the National Clearinghouse of Rehabilitation Training Materials (NCRTM) search at ncrtm.org are listed below.

2000

Bruyere, S.M., Duston, S.D., & Lee, B.A. (2000). Reasonable accommodation under the Americans with disabilities act. Cornell University: Ithaca, NY.
NCRTM #: J015.0395.01
Available in full-text at library.ncrtm.org/pdf/J015.0395.01B.pdf
ABSTRACT: This brochure explains what the ADA requires for employers with employees with disabilities and that is that employers are to make reasonable accommodations for a qualified individual with a known physical or mental disability. An updated version of this document is included.

1992

(1992). ADA: Employment provisions & principles of reasonable accommodations in the workplace. Cornell University: Stillwater, OK.
NCRTM #: 701.045
Available in full-text at library.ncrtm.org/pdf/701.045A.pdf
ABSTRACT: These items are part of a training series on reasonable accommodation from Cornell University. The information, materials and/or technical assistance are intended solely as informal guidance, and not legally binding.

Documents from the National Library of Medicine PubMed search at www.pubmed.com are listed below:

2010

Cordingly, K., Hartnett, H.P., & Thurman, H. (2010). Individuals’ perceptions of employment accommodation decisions and solutions: Lessons for social workers. Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation, 9(1), 53-68.
PMID #: 20391080
ABSTRACT: Disability rights advocates in social work have claimed that employment opportunities for people with disabilities are an important part of personal empowerment and social inclusion. Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act is aimed at ensuring meaningful employment opportunities are available. Hahn and Raske (2005) state that social work needs to develop a research paradigm that values the inclusion of people with disabilities. This article examines these efforts by incorporating the voices of individuals with disabilities who accessed services at the Job Accommodation Network. Understanding individuals’ perspectives could contribute to better accommodation outcomes for people with disabilities, employers, and advocacy professionals alike.

2009

Basu, N., & Niccolini, R.R. (2009). Disability and accommodation in the healthcare workplace. Journal of Health & Life Sciences Law, 2(3), 93-120.
PMID #: 19485027
ABSTRACT: Employers in the healthcare industry face unique challenges regarding compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Healthcare employers must reasonably accommodate employees in complex and often physically challenging positions, while ensuring safe and effective patient care. These challenges have become even more difficult with the recent passage of the ADA Amendments Act of 2008 (ADAAA), which significantly expands the definition and scope of “disability” under the ADA, and legislatively reverses several key Supreme Court decisions favorable to employers. Although the ultimate impact of the ADAAA remains to be determined, this article will help employers and their counsel understand how federal disability discrimination laws may affect their businesses going forward, with an analysis of the language of the ADAAA, case law under the ADA, and guidance from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC).

2008

Matt, S.B. (2008). Nurses with disabilities: Self-reported experiences as hospital employees. Qualitative Health Research, 18(11), 1524-35.
ABSTRACT: Since enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, U.S. employers have been mandated to provide reasonable accommodation for employees with disabilities. Nurses with disabilities have described their experiences, reflecting occurrences that might be noncompliant with these mandates. There is little information available regarding the work experience of nurses with disabilities practicing in hospitals. How these workers view their work world and how they perceive the way others within that environment think of them and their contributions to patient care is important because these individuals must be included as equal participants in a profession that relies on teamwork to function effectively. An exploratory study was conducted to gain a context-based understanding of the lived experiences of hospital-employed nurses with disabilities. Grounded theory methodology was used to uncover themes and to identify factors comprising “disability climate”; such factors might inform the future development of workplace policies supportive of all nurses.

2007

Martz, E. (2007). Facilitating inclusive employment: an examination of the accommodations for and the barriers to employment for Russians with disabilities. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 30(4), 321-6.
PMID #: 17975452
ABSTRACT: Inclusive employment involves a work setting that is physically accessible, and which fosters an attitude that is supportive of individuals with disabilities. The purpose of this research was to examine the barriers to work faced by individuals with disabilities in the Russian Federation. Data were collected from 316 Russian adults with disabilities residing in various cities in Russia; they identified a total of 1915 barriers to work. Their list included physical barriers, attitudinal barriers, and lack of facilities. Further, this sample reported a total of 1718 accommodations that they would require, to enable them to obtain work and to continue to work, including accommodating their physical and time-related needs, as well as those related to working conditions or job tasks. This research suggests a need for a consultation and outreach program to sensitize Russian employers to disability-related issues.

2006

Baker, P., Kaplan, S., Moon, N.W., & Weiss, S. (2006). A framework for providing telecommuting as a reasonable accommodation: Some considerations on a comparative case study. Work, 27(4), 431-40.
PMID #: 17148881
ABSTRACT: Telecommuting, whether full time, part time, or over short periods when the need arises, can be an important accommodation for employees with disabilities. Indeed, telecommuting may be the only form of accommodation that offers employees whose disabilities fluctuate, a means to stay consistently and gainfully employed. This article describes one employer’s experience in considering a request for telecommuting as a reasonable accommodation for a particular employee. Drawing on real-life examples—both positive and negative—this article provides a win/win framework for decision-making that can help employers evaluate the use of telecommuting as a possible accommodation and facilitates open and ongoing communication between employer and employee.

Kovera, M.B., & Mitchell, T.L. (2006). The effects of attribution of responsibility and work history on perceptions of reasonable accommodations. Law & Human Behavior, 30(6), 733-48.
PMID #: 16710788
ABSTRACT: Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), employers must provide employees with disabilities reasonable accommodations that will enable them to perform job duties, as long as the accommodations do not financially burden the organization. Two studies were conducted to investigate whether disability origin and/or prior work history impermissibly influence the granting of reasonable accommodations under the ADA. In both studies, participants granted more accommodations for employees whose disability was caused by some external factor than for those whose disability was caused by the employee’s own behavior. In Study Two, participants also granted more and costlier accommodations for an employee with an excellent work history than for an employee with an average work history. Implications of the use of extralegal factors in accommodation decisions are discussed.

Sabata, D., Williams, M., & Zolna, J. (2006). User needs evaluation of workplace accommodations. Work, 27(4), 355-62.
PMID #: 17148872
ABSTRACT: This study examined the multi-faceted issues surrounding workplace accommodation for workers with disabilities. A user needs survey of 510 disabled individuals examined the types of technology and accommodations needed to perform work and employment-related activities. Workers with disabilities used a variety of workplace accommodations to overcome difficulties with functional limitations. Some differences existed in the types of accommodations used by older and younger workers who had the same functional limitation. Workers of all ages were not likely to report mental limitations, and those who did were not likely to utilize workplace accommodations, with the exception of some memory strategies. For those with hearing loss, younger workers used sign language more frequently, while pre-retirement and retirement age workers used more hearing aids. Working age adults with vision impairments used electronic documents, Braille, and closed-caption TV’s more than pre-retirement or retirement age workers. Regardless of age, workers reporting functional limitations often received no workplace accommodations.

2005

Vierling, L.E. (2005). More on reasonable accommodation. The Case Manager, 16(3), 36-40.
PMID #: 15999083
No abstract is available.

2004

Badley, E.M., Gignac, M.A., & Wang, P.P. (2004). Perceived need for workplace accommodation and labor-force participation in Canadian adults with activity limitations. American Journal of Public Health, 94(9), 1515-8.
PMID #: 15333305
ABSTRACT: Examined how perceived need for workplace accommodation affects labor-force participation in people with disabilities. A Canadian survey was analyzed with structural equation modeling to test a model for incorporating activity limitations and perceived need for workplace accommodations. The results suggested that the effect of upper- and lower-body activity limitation on labor-force participation was mediated by perceived need for workplace accommodations. Thus, the provision of adequate workplace accommodations could enhance labor-force participation in people with disabilities.

Dowler, D.L., Gamble, M.J., & Hirsh, A.E. (2004). Informed decision making on assistive technology workplace accommodations for people with visual impairments. Work, 23(2), 123-30.
PMID #: 15502292
ABSTRACT: Underemployment of people with visual impairments is an important problem in the world of work. Barriers to successful employment include the lack of informed decision making concerning AT as a workplace accommodation. Choosing effective Assistive Technology (AT) as an accommodation solution is imperative to successful employment of individuals with vision impairments. While not all jobs require AT as a part of an accommodation, when AT is needed, an informed choice is the best approach. This article describes the five step process for selecting appropriate AT for individuals with vision impairments in workplace accommodations developed by the Job Accommodation Network (JAN). Cases from the JAN database that involve people with vision impairments were examined. Resources to enable readers to further evaluate and implement effective AT solutions are provided.

2002

Vierling, L.E. (2002). Employers’ obligation to provide reasonable accommodation. The Case Manager, 13(6), 24-6.
PMID #: 12439458
No abstract is available.

1999

(1999). New EEOC guidance details responsibilities for job accommodation. AIDS Policy & Law, 14(6), 1 & 8.
PMID #: 11366627
ABSTRACT: AIDS: The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) released new guidelines on how employers should accommodate the needs of workers with disabilities. Guidelines address using leave as an accommodation, the duty of offering reassignment as a form of reasonable accommodation, and an employer’s cost of accommodation. Among the clarifications, the EEOC states that employers do not have to provide more paid leave than workers in similar situations receive. Employees must be qualified for reassignments, and the employer is not obligated to provide training for the new position. The EEOC disagrees with the Americans with Disabilities Act reasoning that employers should not be forced to accommodate if a cost-benefit analysis reveals undue hardship on the employer. Contact information is provided.

Mueller, J.L. (1999). Returning to work through job accommodation: A case study. AAOHN Journal: Official Journal of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, 47(3), 120-9; quiz 130-1.
PMID #: 10347399
ABSTRACT: As more people live longer and more active lives the likelihood of experiencing a disability during one’s career increases. Although the unemployment rate among people with disabilities is high, workers with disabilities are becoming more common. Effective job accommodation costs only a small fraction of the hundreds of thousands of dollars that would otherwise be paid out in disability benefits and insurance premiums, or wasted in litigation. Job accommodation planning should begin as early as possible in the disability process and include the active involvement of the individual with the disability and appropriate clinicians, as well as the supervisor and coworkers. Successful accommodation is the result of teamwork, The occupational health professional is often the coordinator of a number of internal and external resources in the job accommodation process. Tools are available for sharing information among all those involved in the accommodation process, without compromise of confidential medical or business information.

1998

(1998). Employers’ guide to walking the line of job accommodations. AIDS Policy & Law, 13(18), 8.
PMID #: 11365939
ABSTRACT: AIDS: Judicial precedent has aided employers in interpreting the boundaries and limitations of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Accommodations that employers should allow for are discussed, such as allowing for a reasonable leave of absence, allowing for a job change to an equal or lower position, and re-evaluating which job functions are absolutely necessary. Court cases that are related to each accommodation are listed.

1997

(1997). Accommodating workers with AIDS. AIDS Policy & Law, 12(19), 8.
PMID #: 11364766
ABSTRACT: AIDS: The accommodations that employers should consider offering employees with HIV and AIDS are outlined. These include general accommodations such as wheelchair access, flexible schedules, and specific accommodations for weight loss, vision problems, fatigue, weakness, breathing difficulties, and concentration and memory problems. Employers should consider that every accommodation potentially sets a precedent and that accommodations should address the employee’s disability rather than other people’s discomfort. It is also noted that accommodations must be documented.

1996

Bound, J., & Daly, M.C. (1996). Worker adaptation and employer accommodation following the onset of a health impairment. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and Social Sciences, 51(2), S53-60.
PMID #: 8785693
ABSTRACT: The responses of workers and their employers to the onset of work-limiting health impairments were investigated using data from the new Health and Retirement Study. The results indicate that many workers who suffer from health limitations are directly accommodated by their employers and that those who do not receive direct accommodation frequently adapt to their limitations by altering their job demands or by changing jobs. These findings point to the potential for adjustments on both sides of the market: by employers, in the form of job accommodation, and by employees, in the form of job change.

Hantula, D.A., & Reilly, N.A. (1996). Reasonable accommodation for employees with mental disabilities: A mandate for effective supervision? Behavioral Sciences & The Law, 14(1), 107-20.
PMID #: 10160232
ABSTRACT: Reasonable accommodation under Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) for employees with mental disabilities is explored from a behavior analytic perspective. Although much of the attention in issues of reasonable accommodation is concentrated on persons with physical disabilities, it is argued that the needs of individuals with mental disabilities are in greater need of further study. The criterion for successful accommodation in the workplace for employees with mental disabilities is seen to be structurally different, but functionally similar to successful accommodations for employees with physical disabilities, and is based on the development of enabling environments. Behavior analysis offers a theoretical basis and performance management presents a methodological basis for analyzing, developing, implementing, and evaluating reasonable accommodation for persons with mental disabilities, largely in terms of effective supervision. It is concluded that Title I of the ADA may be seen as providing a mandate for effective supervision, which may also be extended to all employees.

1991

Shaller, E.H. (1991). “Reasonable accommodation” under the Americans with Disabilities Act: What does it mean? Employee Relations Law Journal, 16(4), 431-51.
PMID #: 10170703
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) imposes on employers the duty to afford qualified disabled applicants and employees “reasonable accommodation,” but provides minimal guidance as to the range of actions necessary to fulfill this duty. Under the statutory scheme, required accommodations will vary from employer to employer, from worksite to worksite for the same employer, and perhaps even from employee to employee at the same worksite. Personnel managers will be required to make very fact-specific decisions in each case as to whether to offer particular accommodations, with any decision declining to provide the accommodation subject to attack in litigation. Based on an analysis of how similar reasonable accommodation requirements have been interpreted under other statutes, this article analyzes the likely parameters of the duty to afford reasonable accommodation under the ADA and offers specific suggestions for employers to minimize their risk of liability.




Work RERC Logo

About Workplace Accommodations Policy Highlights

While researching the NARIC REHABDATA database on workplace accommodations and individuals with disabilities the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Workplace Accommodations publication Workplace Accommodations Policy Highlights stood out as an authoritative, scholarly resource presenting information, resources, and research related to workplace accommodations for individuals with disabilities. The NARIC REHABDATA database listings resulted in 19 citations for Workplace Accommodations Policy Highlights between 2003 and 2007 produced by the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Workplace Accommodations under the NIDRR grant number H133E070026. This RERC has completed its research activities; however, their publications are offered as additional resources for our patrons.

Workplace Accommodations Policy Highlights

The Workplace Accommodations Policy Highlights is a periodic publication to report policy, regulatory framework and market factors that can be useful in reducing barriers to integrating people with disabilities into the national workforce. It can be downloaded in HTML and PDF formats at www.workrerc.org/News/highlights.php.

    Issue 5.01 – Spring 2007
  • DOJ Five Year Progress Report on ADA Enforcement
  • Employment Concerns of Latinos with Disabilities
  • NOD EmployAbility Partnership: Army Wounded Warriors Carriers& Start of Success Programs
  • Resources: ADA Title II Toolkit and Fact Sheet on Employment of Health Care Workers with Disabilities
    Issue 4.05 – November 2006
  • Bipartisan Legislation Introduced to Restore ADA Protections
  • EEOC Launches “LEAD” Initiative Website to Stem Decline in Number of Federal Workers
  • Labor Department Awards Grants to Advance Self-Employment
  • Court Cases: Denny’s (Medical Leave Policy); Watkins Motor Lines (ADA Impairments Must be the Result of a Physiological Condition)
  • Reports: 2205 Disability Status Reports (Cornell University & AAPD); Transition to Work Programs (GAO); Remote Worker Costs (Gartner Inc.)
    Issue 4.04 – September 2006
  • EEOC Takes Steps to Stem Decline in Number of Federal Workers
  • DOL Expands Disability Program Navigators Project
  • New Appointments Made to the NCD
  • Agreement Reached on UN Convention on the Rights of PWDs
  • Court case: Employers Must Accommodate Employees ‘Regarded’ as Disabled
    Issue 4.03 – June 2006
  • Committee to Update Section 508 Standards
  • ODEP Database of College Students with Disabilities Seeking Summer Employment
  • EEOC Holds Employer Roundtable on Disability & Emergency Preparedness
  • DBTACs Seek Comments on ADA
  • Americans with Disabilities 2002: Over 50 Million Americans Report Some Level of Disability
  • Reasonable Accommodation for Attorneys with Disabilities Fact Sheet
    Issue 4.02 – April 2006
  • New Legislation on Emergency Preparedness and College Access Introduced
  • EEOC Wins Disability Suit against FedEx
  • Accommodations for Psychiatric Disabilities
  • JAN Survey – Attitude, not Cost, a Barrier to Disabled Employees
  • Policy Proposals for Improving Work Incentives
    Issue 4.01 – February 2006
  • New Transatlantic Agenda from Joint EU-US Employment Conference
  • ADA and Personality Testing
  • EEOC Report: Slight Decline in Discrimination Charges in 2005
  • Research on Employment Trends, Accessibility, AT Issues
  • Study – Consumers Support Businesses that Hire Disabled Employees
    Issue 3.03 – October 2005
  • EEOC highlights – Employment Rights of the Blind or People with Cancer
  • ADA Protects People Associated with the Disabled
  • U.S. Commerce Dept. Employee Awarded $3 Million in Accommodation Suit
  • EEOC Wins Appeal in Disability Suit against Sears Roebuck
  • Employment Rate for People with Disabilities
    IIssue 3.02 – May 2005
  • NCD Report on Emergency Planning
  • OPM Executive Testifies on Telework Policies
  • ADA and Cruise Ships – Spector v. Norwegian Cruise Line Ltd.
  • Wal-Mart Loses NY Disability Discrimination Lawsuit
  • EEOC’s 2004 Report on Federal Workforce
  • Heavy Use of Handheld Electronics Can Lead to Disability
    Issue 3.01 – January 2005
  • Bush Signs IDEA Reform Bill
  • EEOC Highlights – New Report Released, Northwest Airlines Settlement
  • GAO Recommendations for One-Stop Career Centers
  • Article - Public Places and Emergency Evacuation Planning
  • Study – Obesity May Increase Disability Risk
    Issue 2.05 – October 2004
  • Assistive Technology Act of 2004 Approved by Bush and Other AT Developments
  • $2.4 Million in Telework Grants Awarded by DOL
  • Disability Discrimination Claims against UPS
  • ADA & the Internet - Access Now v. Southwest Airlines
  • Senate Hearing on Aging Workers
  • Second Circuit Court Rules on “Essential Functions” Case
    IIssue 2.04 – August 2004
  • Assistive Technology Act Introduced to Senate
  • Executive Order – Individuals with Disabilities in Emergency Preparedness
  • Guidelines for Accessible Design
  • Epilepsy and the ADA
  • Articles – Cultural Mistrust and Return-to-Work Incentives, Disability Management and Aging Workers
  • Surprising Statistics in EEOC’s Annual Report on the Federal Workforce
    Issue 2.03 – June 2004
  • OPM’s Annual Report – The Status of Telework in the Federal Government
  • ODEP’s Report on Emergency Preparedness for the Disabled
  • EEOC’s 2003 Federal Work Force Report
  • Women with Disabilities and Employment Discrimination
  • FCC’s Summit on Disability Access Issues
  • Federal Initiatives in Assistive Technology
    Issue 2.02 – April 2004
  • New Freedom Initiative Progress Report
  • Bush Creates Interagency Transportation Coordinating Council on Access and Mobility
  • “Project Civic Access”
  • EEOC’s 2003 Statistics on Enforcement and Litigation in Private Sector Employment
  • Judicial Impact on Reasonable Accommodation
    Issue 2.01 – February 2004
  • Bush Signs Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2004 [HR 2673]
  • Congress Reauthorizes the Workforce Investment Act and the Rehabilitation Act
  • Federal Disability Statistics
  • Supreme Court Cases: Hernandez v. Raytheon (Rehiring Recovering Addicts), Tennessee v. Lane (ADA Violation by States), General Dynamics Land Systems Inc. v. Cline (Reverse Age Discrimination)
    Issue 1.07 – November/December 2003
  • Diabetes, Secondhand Smoke in the Workplace
  • Disability Claims: Wrongful Termination & Reverse Age Discrimination
  • Study – Government Web Sites Lack Accessibility
  • Dept. of Labor’s Seminar on Emergency Preparedness for Disabled Employees
    Issue 1.06 – September/October 2003
  • Agencies – Steps to Prevent Disability Discrimination & Promote Employment
  • National Disability Employment Awareness Month
  • Rights of Recovering Addicts and Partially Blind Persons under the ADA
  • Latest Trends in Employment of the Disabled
    Issue 1.05 – July/August 2003
  • Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Compliance Assistance Checklist
  • National Disability Mentoring Day – 10/15/2003
  • Advancements in Assistive Technology
  • Promotion of ADA Expansion to Include Web Accessibility
    Issue 1.04 – June 2003
  • Government Programs Supporting ADA Employment Efforts
  • Cultural Attitudes Regarding Intellectual Disabilities
  • Judicial Rulings on Accessibility Claims
  • Paper – “History of Modern Disability Policy in the Workplace”
    Issue 1.03 – May 2003
  • Introduction to New Freedom Initiative
  • Judicial Rulings on Retaliation Claims & the “Interactive Process” Mandate
  • Measures of Disability and Reasonable Accommodation Requests
  • Corporations Committed to Product Development Promoting Community Integration
    Issue 1.02 – April 2003
  • Supreme Court Rulings on the Definition of Disability, Accommodation Rights
  • Policy Papers: Universal Design and Assistive Technology
  • Legislation: Workforce Investment Act of 1998 & The Assistive Technology Act of 1998
    Issue 1.01 – March 2003
  • Introduction to Federal Guidelines and Legislative History on Workplace Accommodations
  • Regulatory Bodies and other Organizations supporting Community Integration Policies
  • Judicial Impact on Accommodation Policy


Quick Looks

Online Resources Related to Workplace Accommodations & Disability

ADA.gov – A Guide for People with Disabilities Seeking Employment
www.ada.gov/workta.htm

American Association of People with Disabilities (AAPD) –
Toll Free: 800/840-8844
Contact Us: www.aapd.com/site/c.pvI1IkNWJqE/b.5606911/k.2953/Contact_Us.htm
Disability Employment: www.aapd.com/site/c.pvI1IkNWJqE/b.5606959/k.6189/Disability_Employment.htm
www.aapd.com

The Campaign for Disability Employment – What can YOU do?
Toll Free: 800/526-7234
Email: campaignfordisabilityemployment@jan.wvu.edu
What can YOU do? Outreach Toolkit: www.whatcanyoudocampaign.org/blog/index.php/toolkit
www.whatcanyoudocampaign.org

Center for Assistive Technology and Environmental Access (CATEA)
Toll Free: 800/726-9119
Email: catea@coa.gatech.edu
www.catea.gatech.edu/workplace.php

Disability.gov –
Employment: www.disability.gov/employment
Reasonable Accommodation: www.disability.gov/employment/workplace_accommodations_%26_supports/reasonable_accommodation
Workplace Accommodations & Supports section: www.disability.gov/employment/workplace_accommodations_%26_supports

DisaboomJobs – Jobs for people with disabilities
www.disaboomjobs.com

Family Village – Employment Resources for People with Disabilities
www.familyvillage.wisc.edu/general/employmt.htm

Job Accommodation Network (JAN)
Toll Free: 800/526-7234
Contact us: askjan.org/links/contact.htm#email
Publications and Resources: askjan.org/media/index.htm
Accommodation Search (SOAR): askjan.org/soar/index.htm
askjan.org/index.html

National Resource Directory – Employment Resources for Veterans
www.nationalresourcedirectory.gov/employment

Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP)
Toll Free: 866/633-7365
Email: www.dol.gov/cgi-bin/contactus.asp?agency=odep
Publications: www.dol.gov/odep/pubs/publicat.htm
Return-to-Work Toolkit for Employees & Employers: www.dol.gov/odep/return-to-work/index.htm
www.dol.gov/odep/index.htm

Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center (RERC) on Workplace Accommodations
Toll Free: 800/726-9119
Email: workrerc@coa.gatech.edu
www.workrerc.org/index.php

U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) – Federal Employment of People with Disabilities www.opm.gov/disability/appempl.asp

VCU-RRTC – Worksupport.com
Phone: 804/828-1851
Contact Us: www.worksupport.com/about_us/contact.cfm
www.worksupport.com/index.cfm


Search Terms for Workplace Accommodations & Individuals with Disabilities

  • Adjustment
  • Accessibility
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
  • ADA
  • Assistive Devices
  • Attitudes
  • Barriers
  • Blindness
  • Career Development
  • Case Management/Studies
  • Communication Aids
  • Compliance
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Data Collection
  • Deafness
  • Decision Making
  • Disability Evaluation/Studies
  • Discrimination
  • Employer–Employee Relationship
  • Employment/Costs/Experience/Patterns/Practices/Supported
  • Environmental Influences
  • Equal Opportunities/Protection
  • Evaluation Methods
  • Functional Limitations
  • Hiring Practices
  • Individuals with Disabilities
  • Intervention
  • Job/Analysis/Modification/Performance/Placement/Satisfaction
  • Legislation
  • Mobility Impairments
  • Motor Skills
  • Musculoskeletal Disorders
  • National Surveys
  • Needs Assessment
  • Occupational Accidents/Health/Mobility/Therapy
  • Organizational Effectiveness
  • Outcomes
  • Perception
  • Personal Assistance Services
  • Personnel Management/Selection
  • Physical Disabilities
  • Policy
  • Productivity
  • Psychiatric Disabilities
  • Rehabilitation/Research
  • Research Utilization
  • Self-Help Devices
  • Sensory Impairments
  • Service Delivery/Utilization
  • Severe Disabilities
  • Social Integration/Perception/Responsibility/Work
  • Stereotyping
  • Supported Employment
  • Telecommunications
  • Universal Design
  • Visual Impairments
  • Vocational Rehabilitation
  • Work Environment/Performance/Place/Simplification/Stations
  • Workers with Disabilities

About reSearch:

reSearch is a new information product from the National Rehabilitation Information Center (NARIC). Each issue is based on real-world queries received by our information specialists from researchers, educators, and rehabilitation professionals around the world.

We search several sources both in-house and online, to fill these requests including:

We hope you find these reSearch briefs informative in your own research.

- NARIC Information and Media Team



 
 HOME | SEARCH | CONTACT US | ABOUT US | SITEMAP